Legacy of the Kazakh Khanate in the Political Culture and Traditions
In 1991 year new say the Republic of Kazakhstan is appeared on the map. The truth and amelioration of Kazakhstan is calculateed a thousand years. One of the material issues is encircling autochthonic population’s cause, structure and causes of its homogeneity, crop of amelioration and cultural traditions, relationships succeeding a while other civilizations. Applying for written beginnings we can identify that Kazakhs khanate had been formed to 1470 when on the specify of Kazakhstan in south-eastern specifys Semirechye and in vales of Chu Kazakh sultans Dzhanibek and Girey could chief the close crowds, which had been jointed in crowd calld “Kazakh”, ‘Kazakhs”.
At the fixation of XVI era in the interval of Kasymkhan the Kazakh khanate was strengthened, its borders were widened, syrdarya towns Turkestan, Otyrar, Sayram, Sauran, Syganak, Suzak and Chimkent were disunite of Kazakh khanate . Kazakhstan becomes distinguishn in Asia and Europe. The XVI era is an material milestone in the truth of Moslem globe from which the new interval bill is began. The celebrated east learner V. V. Bartold wrote « In the new truth of Moslem in oplie to accelerated substitute of dynasties and jurisdictions? olitical fickleness, says narrow dimensions and that’s why stagcommonwealth of any whatsoever patriotism, now we can see the countries establishing there. We see the Moslem jurisdiction of Immense Mongols in India, then Turkey, Persia ... ” Approximately at that interval Kazakh, Yarkend khanates had been appeared in Central Asia. The Turkic Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kara-kalpaks were announced on the recorded exhibition. When the terminal khan Taukekhan died, the jurisdiction had procuratorial to the calculate of steppe khans and each of them was at the chief of disunited groups of Kazakhs and the territories Kazakh khanate existed up to 1716.
At that interval the regularity of a-breaking-up and putrefaction had began and the end of this regularity the say was substance interjacent in Russian realm. The ethnicon of “Kazakh” consecrated the call of say is Turkic signal. It is generally agreed that it resources “loose man” Kazakhs were very laborious nomads and farmers, keep had the immense fat mob, productive departedures, and productive domain on sub mountain and vales of rivers. But pointed encircling Kazakhs and the primitive Kazakh vulgarwealth it is expedient to distinguish that cause of that vulgarwealth as its amelioration and sayhood dated from centuries. Bibliography: http://www. toptravel. ru/bgkkfl2. htm http://kazakhstan. awd. z Turkic roots of Kazakh collective amelioration and traditions Kazakhstan has a productive departed. Its geographical and geocollective lie has played a animate role in promoting the specify’s crop. Located in the nature of Eurasia, Kazakhstan has hanker fix itheadstrong at the crossroads of the globe’s most aged civilizations and dealing ways. It has been a place of collective, economic and cultural exsubstitute natant East and West, North and South, and natant the main players in Eurasia. At incongruous stages of its truth, sundry says emerged and patent clear in the place which became today’s Kazakhstan. All contributed to Kazakh amelioration.
In succeeding centuries, the steppes were abode to a jurisdictionful say formed by the Huns. Their realm immensely influenced the geocollective map of that interval. The Immense Roman Realm in Europe besides bare from the blows of the Attila the Hun’s valorous warriors. Later, the Huns were replaced on the steppes by Turkic crowds. They fixed separate extensive says distinguishn as “kaganats” stretching from the Yellow Sea in the East to the Bstagcommonwealth Sea in the West. These says were celebrated by a amelioration transitional for that interval. They were fixed not simply on a locomotive rule but besides on an oasis oppidan amelioration succeeding a while productive dealing and handiwork traditions.
During this interval, cities and caravanserais were fixed in the oases of Central Asia, the specify of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia. They luminous ahanker the glorious dealing way distinguishn as the Immense Silk Road which connecting Europe and China. Other dealing ways were besides material including the way ahanker the Syr Dariya River to the Aral Sea and the South Urals as courteous the so determined “Sable Road” from South Western specifys of Siberia through Central Kazakhstan and the Altai specify. It was through dealing on the “Sable Road” that the Middle East and Europe were supplied succeeding a while rich furs.
Major cities and dealing natures fixed on these ways interjacent Otrar (Farab), Taraz, Kulan, Yassy (Turkestan), Sauran, and Balasagun. The Immense Silk Road not simply stimulated the crop of dealing, it besides became a conduit for transitional philosophical and cultural ideas. For type, the immense teacher Al-Farabi (870-950) was immensely influenced by the amelioration of the dealing ways. Born in the Farab bounds, Al-Farabi was dubbed in the East “the Cooperate Teacher” succeeding Aristotle for his profix researches in philosophy, astronomy, harmonious hypothesis and mathematics.
The uncollected pupil of Turkic philology Mahmud Kashgari lived less in the 11th era. He created the three-volume “Dictionary of Turkic Dialects” which summed up Turkic folklore and literary-works heritages. In the 11th Century, Yusup Balasaguni of the town of Balasagun, a glorious rhymster and teacher, wrote “Kutaglu Bilig” (“A Knowledge that Brings Happiness”) which is symmetrical as having played an material role in the crop of new-fangled collective, collective and intellectual conceptions. The Sufi rhymster Hodja Ahmet Yassaui, who lived in the 12th era, wrote a assemblage of rhymsteric thoughts “Divan-i-Khikmet” (“Book of Wisdom”).
He is glorious throughout the Muslim globe. Disunite of the cultural will of that continuance is the polished oppidan edifice. Examples such as the mausoleums of Arystan Baba, of the immense Sufi Hodja Akhmet Yassaui in Turkestan and Aisha Bibi in Taraz are natant the best preserved. Adisunite from this, the most aged nomads of the specify contrived the “yurt”, a dome-shaped amply dismantled and manageable scion made from cope and felt, intellectual for their locomotive conduct and beliefs. In 1221, Mongolian crowds of Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and adventitious their amelioration and values to the increasingly obscure collection of the specify.
By the cooperate half of the 15th Era a regularity of concord had begun natant the herds of the Central Asian steppe. This regularity, moderate from the sundry ethnic and cultural identities, was drawn concertedly by a vulgar globe examirealm and conductstyle. The primitive Kazakh khanates emerged at this interval. By the primitive half of the 16th Century, the structure of a sole Kazakh vulgarwealth was completed. The signal “Kazakh” in the old Turkic vernacular meant “free” or “independent” which accurately fit the office of the herd who had been hanker desire for their own defiant say.
In the 17th and 18th Centuries the locomotive Jungar crowds directed by the Chinese Bogdykhans launched a extensive lamina war counter the Kazakh khanate. However, felicitation to the fortitude of the “batyrs” (knights), the decisiveness of the Kazakh director Ablai Khan, the prudent skills of the Kazakh ‘biys’ (sages) Tole Bi, Kazdausty Kazybek Bi, Aiteke Bi, and headstrong surrender of the herd, the Kazakhs staved undiminishedty seize and natural destruction. The Kazakh khans were grievous to affect the soldierly refuge of the Russian Empire, which besides led to Kazakhstan’s detriment of sovereignty in 1871. For a interval, the fortune of Kazakhstan was tied to the
European type of collective crop and the fortune of the Russian Say and its herds. Succeeding the 1917 act Soviet jurisdiction was orderly in Kazakhstan. Kazakhs suffered immensely inferior Soviet curb. Due to the grievous collectivization in the 1930s, hunger caused the release of 1. 5 favorite Kazakhs, which was past than 40 percent of the vulgarwealth. Hundreds of thousands Kazakhs fled to China and elsewhere. The brightest and the best of the vulgarwealth were repressed and frequently shot stagnant. The regime’s terminal palpitate was the beastly cohibition of the Kazakh herd on December 17, 1986 as they took to the streets affecting impartiality.
Many judge this the fixation of the end for the unintermittently potent Soviet Union. Kazakhstan proclaimed its insurrection on December 16, 1991, and Nursultan Nazarbayev was democratically elected the primitive President of the specify. Bibliography: Kiessling, Kerstin Lindahl. “Conference on the Aral Sea: Women, Children, Sanity and Environment. ” Ambio Vol. 27, No. 7 (November, 1998): 560-564. Weiner, Douglas. A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Refuge from Stalin to Gorbachev. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Soviet transstructure of Kazakh collection and will in collective amelioration and traditions Arguably the most powerful economic management filled by Marxist-fashioned empires and the Soviet Union was that of unroving and industrial collectivization. Forcing national Soviets to eliminate say-controlled farms and industrial edifice projects, the Soviet collectivization programs generally had two overarching purposes: the ideological loosedom of the Soviet circuit from class antagonisms and the concupiscent parasitism of “kulak” banditry, and the economic acquirements of a fiscally headstrong-sufficient Marxist collection.
Soviet republics endured two main fronts of collectivization that yielded twain salubrious and catastrophic goods. The Stalin empire (1922-53) trained collectivization projects as a resources to improve “socialism in one specify,” succeeding a while an industrialized war implement and a courteous-fed population totally loose of the capitalist bearing. As the Comintern and NATO plunged into the Cold War, the Khrushchev empire (1953-64) reimposed unroving collectivization succeeding a while the so-determined “Virgin
Lands Program” specifically succeeding a while the fixed of looseing the USSR from humiliating dependency on Western capitalist foundation imports. Soviet collectivization made practicable economic and industrial achievements that would inadequately keep been unusable. However, the vociferous acquirements of collectivization came at a awful expense, promptly creating some of the most horrendous anthropological and environmental visitations of the twentieth era.
In twain fronts of Soviet collectivization, the herd of Kazakhstan endured by far the conquer of these disasters, denial man-made famines and decay, irretrievable environmental desiccation, the regular transstructure of the undiminished Aral Sea to memorable disorganization, body stampede and dismemberment, and astronomical chance. Smooth worse, the cooperate front of collectivization (the Virgin Domain Campaign) simply exacerbated the hopeless environmental tragedies of the primitive front.
These disasters are undiminishedly moderate from the will of collectivization. 1 Despite the Soviets' ideological insistence on the benefits of collectivization programs in Kazakhstan, the Kazakh herd familiar far immenseer denial and mishap than they profited, and are stagnant struggling to resume from the ecological consequences smooth today. It must be notorious that the Soviet Union never purposed to promptly impose any natural visitation on the Soviet republics or the Kazakh herd.
It must besides be early emphasized that the Soviet collectivization management besides contributed to incontestable industrial, collective, cultural, and usurpation achievements, which transformed tribal Kazakhstan into a new-fangled republic and an exporter of anything from steel, to cotton, to Snow Queen® vodka. But the expense that the Kazakh herd were grievous to pay was far too proud. Twain fronts of collectivization keep imposeed an indefeasible will of unroving disorganization, economic lowering, natural nourishment, and environmental visitation that far overbalance the benefits of the grievous proletarian loosedom brought by the Soviet Union.
Unfortunate for the Kazakhs, the shocking will of illfated Soviet agro-economic management did not decline succeeding a while the Berlin Wall, and it may claim centuries to resume Stalin's primitive front of Soviet collectivization represents amply the conquer natural and environmental depression of Kazakh truth. The collectivization leadership began closely directly succeeding the ultimate separation of the Kazakh crowds and polities into the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) in 1936.
The unroving virtual of the productive and primordial Kazakh steppe was perceived as an priceless beginning of awful collective output for the say. As in the other, of-late “liberated” herds newly incorporated into the USSR, those Kazakhs that were largely bewildered into Soviet collection through grievous collectivization would besides like indicative benefits that would keep inadequately been impracticable for the semi-locomotive Kazakhs, such as theoretically near-universal literacy and usurpation, the crop of oppidanized cities and mien systems, sanity preservation, job assurance, and pabulum.
Although the mainity of these benefits owe themselves to Soviet management rather than collectivization itself, these acquirements must be weighed succeeding a while the shocking consequences if we are to deduce that collectivization had an overall disclaiming commodities on Kazakh collection.
Bibliography: CNN. com. “Athrax 'interval bomb' ticking in Aral Sea, researchers say. ” CNN. http://www. cnn. com/WORLD/asiapcf/9906/21/anthrax. island/ Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Krech, Shepard, John Robert McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant. Encyclopedia of Globe Environmental History: A-E. New York: Routeledge Press, 2004.