ABSTRACT Objective: To singleize the incline of wilful medication natant young-persons. Methods: A scrutinize was persuadeed in 4 areas of Karachi, Pakistan during May 2012. Axioms firm was entered using SPSS account 17 to amount described statistics. Axioms analyzed chattelsed using chi-square cupel to stay the associations natant variables. Results: The emanation shows that the compute of young-persons segregate-amongicipated in this consider were 100, having age concatenate of 14-27 years, the balanceall solution is actual. There effeminates were 37 (37%) and males were 63 (63%). This was reflected by the elderity of the illustrations was lowergraduate young-persons.
By the inquiry we get the emanation that crowd contemplate that they could learn their own malady themselves and that leads them to wilful medication. Requirement and learning own malady is not defiant. Failure of occasion is fix to be a appearrence that males do wilful medication further frequently then effeminates the incline towards wilful medication is increasing day by day. Conclusion: Wilful medication sort increasing in the young-persons of Karachi, Pakistan chiefly in males and lowergraduate young-persons lower age of 18-22. The infer is failure of occasion or not consulting to the master.
Need to ground the young-persons to eschew such sort elderity inferiorstand that wilful medication is defective and some occasion action segregate-amongy pi. Key words: Wilful medication, young-persons, incline, recipe. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Contrast of the consider Self-medication is defined as obtaining and using salve extraneously the instigation of a master either for idiosyncrasy. Drugs for wilful-medication are usually designate as 'nonprescription' or 'balance the anewst' (OTC) and are obtainable extraneously teaching of master's through chemists. Wilful medication is nowadays spiritual life considered as a wilful-foresight constituent.
Support of wilful-foresight is seen as communicate unrepinings' entire sentiment to lay-hands-on accountforce and invent wilful-belief in their force to market succeeding a seasonliness their own sanity. Unapprove other specialitys of wilful-care, wilful-medication mingles the use of salves and salves own the virtual to do amend as courteous-mannered-mannered as action injury. This is chiefly apprehension to these countries where there is failure of enforcement of scheme requisite to pathibility of non recipe salves balance the anewst approve Pakistan. This emanations in big use of such offals which is cognate succeeding a seasonliness solemn worthclose pis.
Numerous smoothts studies own orderly that unagreeable wilful-medication issues in wastage of instrument and actions solemn sanity peril such as unwanted offal reactions, prolonged refusal and offal trust. When the medication justly chattelsed, wilful-medication capacity be lay-hands-on the occasion which late in protraction to see a physician, may be absorb-able and besides inincline savings for medical schemes and the unsecret sanityforesight scheme. The WHO has besides marked out that dependable wilful-medication can succor unrepining and speak malady that do not deficiency medical consideration and communicates a cheaper liberty for speaking vulgar assumptions.
With wilful-medication, the single tolerates principal accountforce for the use of wilful-medication emanations. All segregate-amongies apprehensioned in wilful-medication should be attentive of the advantages and disadvantages of any wilful-medication emanation. Through multifarious studies own been persuadeed in divergent populations to prize the sort of wilful-medication there is a scarceness of studies on wilful-medication natant university and medical novices. To repair our inferiorstandledge we raise on this agenda and targeted the young-persons to ascertain out the sorts of wilful-medication in young-persons of Karachi.
This consider is persuade on incline of Self-medication in young-persons of Karachi. Wilful medication incline is uniformly increasing in young-persons. This consider capacity be succorful to singleize the blame of wilful medication in young-idiosyncratic of schools, propagandas and universities of Karachi. This consider besides explores the damaging pis of wilful medication, actions for not discussing succeeding a seasonliness the master and unsecret progenys for which novices believe on wilful medication. Self-medication is the sanityful of unsecret sanity progenys succeeding a seasonliness offals distinctly intendd and labeled for husband extraneously any medical recipe and operating as unendangered and conducive for such medical progenys.
To repair our counsel, we persuade this consider in Karachi and distinctly target the young-persons to evaluate wilful medication in the boy. In Karachi, almost entire chemist sells salves extraneously a recipe of master; a oddity seen in multifarious is lay-opening countries. Wilful medication is a segregate-among-natant of sanity foresight and it is measured as judicious social sanity beginning in scheme of sanity foresight. Use of non-recipe salves by crowd on their own lay-openment is a segregate-among-natant of wilful medication and it is in vulgar sort in young-persons for vulgar progenys cognate to their sanity.
Self medication besides encompasses the use of the salves by the users for wilful perceived sanity heights or the persistent use of medications formally decreed preceding. Further broading of the peaceriction conceives speakment of origin members distinctly to junior and senile. Counteractive pis of wilful medication Its very vulgar in our burymanner that whenever we lay-hands-on a cough, flu or any vulgar assumption we own unwandering a recipe in our choice and we do wilful-medication in such situations. We ask any of our friends or neighbors who decrees the salve which was piive for him.
We do these emblems of creatures but the ocean creature we pretermit in all this is going to a master. Some oppositeactive pis of wilful-medication are as follows. Insomnia Due to wilful-medication you can visage the height of insomnia. Insomnia is a inert assumption this is very vulgar now a days and one of the noticeableer infer to insomnia is wilful-medication. When this height appears anew unsecret you salve box and do wilful-medication anew for this height too. This worsens your height. When you lay-hands-on one emblem of salve anew and anew you may addicted to it and you besides get contingent on such salves.
Skin heights When you mingle in wilful medication you earn get some peel height or any other allergy due to reaction of salve. Peel height that appear due to wilful-medication are hankering and redness on your peel. Debasement Crowd who own a sort of preamble salves which peace them that crowd oppositeness the height of debasement. Multifarious crowd wilful-medicate themselves to get peace extraneously the teaching of master. This emblem of sort may action solemn height and no one can reject the pis of this wilful-medication addiction. Peel heights through marrows and lotions
Self-medication is does not merely medium to in lay-hands-on such salves. Self-medication can besides be using lotion or marrow on your peel extraneously the teaching of master. This emblem of wilful medication can besides action multifarious peel heights. 1. 2 External of the consider The Aim/external of this consider is to singleize the incline of Wilful medication natant young-persons. 1. 3 Height declaration Although wilful-medication life an progeny of global apprehension, distinctly in Pakistan wilful medication is very vulgar and elevation day by day. Liteblame crowd mingle in the sorts of wilful medication further than illiteblame crowd.
This consider conceives some unsecret aspects of wilful medication to criterion the quantity of wilful medication natant the young-persons. 1. 4 Theory Ho1. 4. 1:wilful medication natant young-persons and age are defiant. Ha 1. 4. 1:wilful medication natant young-persons and age are not defiant. Ho1. 4. 2: wilful medication natant young-persons and gender are defiant. Ha 1. 4. 2: wilful medication natant young-persons and gender are not defiant. Ho1. 4. 3: wilful medication natant young-persons and insist-uponment are defiant. Ha 1. 4. : wilful medication natant young-persons and insist-uponment are not defiant. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Trends of Self-Medication According to Khalid (2010) in our dominion Wilful medication is an mediocre. The anewst sales of closely all salve are advantageous extraneously any recipe or action this is one of the noticeableer appearrenceor probably contributing to this oddity. In the sort of our dermatology, we vulgarly confront unrepinings succeeding a seasonliness acne transferred due to use of topical wilful medication. The power of wilful medication is bigly lofty in the acne transferred unrepinings in our residents.
The most frequently used medication was efficacious topical steroids. 2. 2 Self-Medication sorts According to Shankar et al (2002) Moderate malady is the most vulgar infer of wilful-medication which is mentioned in the reading, preceding inferiorstandledge of speaking cognate assumption, failure of availforce of sanityforesight singlenel and financial considerations. Analgesics and antimicrobial are vulgarly used for wilful medications. In singleization to allopathic salves, herbal salves were besides usually used for wilful-medication. 2. 3 Reasons for wilful-medication sort
According to Almasdy et al, (2011) Natant university novices the noticeableer infer for wilful-medication were their preceding counsels and the elderity of the agents agreed succeeding a seasonliness this noticeableer infer of wilful medication, their sanity heights was measured as too inexpressive and occasion savings. Origin or friends direction, non availforce of ecstasy, master was not advantageous, capforce to wilful-manage the mark, crisis of the height and own strong counsel were other ocean infers for wilful-medication sort.
Have reputed that the ocean infers to wilful-medication sort natant university novice were failure of occasion and low absorb consideration. 2. 4 Demographic specialitys and power of wilful medication sort According to Hussain et al. (2011) multifarious of these inquiryes mentioned the medium age of lowergraduates was lower 25 years old. This was reflected by the elderity of the illustrations was lowergraduate novices. In sort of sexual specialitys, power of the lowergraduates who own mingled in wilful-medication is effeminate.
Three of these inquiryes own been intent to lowergraduates noticeableering in twin-fellow sanity and non-sanity manners, seasonliness two of the studies own intent to lowergraduates barely noticeableering in sanity, and the peace did not orthodox the scene of the lowergraduates mingled in the studies. Quantity of wilful-medication observed natant the university novice was distinct. The appearrence of wilful-medication reputed was chiefly depend on how the inquiry was inventd in the investigationnaire.
For lay-openment, the appearrence reputed was veritable, if the investigation was apprehensioned to the new-fashioned sort of wilful-medication. On the opposite, when asked whether the novices had used any medication for the gone-by one month, the stroke reputed was low. However, some studies did not recital the power of wilful medication. Due to the unlikeness in the methods used in studies, accordingly, it is altogether reserved to prize the penny power blame of wilful-medication in university novices. 2. 5 Benefits and Risks of Wilful Medication According to Carmel M et al. 2001) Practices of wilful-foresight for moderate maladyes are increasingly assuring by some governments, including wilful-medication. Support of wilful-foresight is observed as giving all probforce to unrepinings to lay-hands-on accountforce and build belief in their capforce to coerce their own sanity. Unrepining belief is observed as a succorful trudge in the emendion of the correspondence discurrent unrepining and sanityforesight provider and is picturesque as an momentous sanity cunning design. 2. 6 In? uences on Recognition and Attitudes encircling Recipe Drugs natant Teens.
According to Twombly et al, (2008) escalating terse counsel encircling the perils of confideed salves perrendering is expected to classify perversion. In appearrence, there is an inverse similarity discurrent raze of perceived abandon and approvelihood of use when it comes to teenagers’ earningness to perrendering recipe offals. 2. 7 Symptoms requisite to wilful-medication According to Zafar et al. (2008) Almost in Pakistan, entireone can get salve extraneously any recipe, chiefly pharmacy selling salves extraneously a master advise; this largely-beneath observed in entire lay-opening nations.
Even, antibiotics and lofty virtual salves are largely advantageous to the vulgar man. The vulgar sorts of wilful-medication natant lowergraduates is requisite to the ocean marks of wilful-medication were debauchery or moderate pain; ferment; flu, caught and unimpassioned; and diarrhea. Others marks conceives allergy, peel heights, inforce to repose, vomiting, eye and ear marks, menstrual syndrome and others junior heights. This smootht consider shows the issue of the Pakistani boy's counsel, choice-set, and sort towards wilful medication. 2. 8 Sources of offal counsel
According to Hussain et al, (2008) in this inquiry, the agent explains beginnings of offal counsel in wilful-medication sort. In this inquiry declaration shows that the lowergraduates obtain path to offal counsel from multifarious instrument. Which is report to their own preceding counsel, origin, contacts or university manner mates, pharmacy sales delegated-to-others, master or foster, and catalogue in the television, radio, newspaper, store or books. 2. 9 Problems-cognate to wilful-medication sorts According to James et al, (2006) a new material ascertainings appreciation of elf-medication loftylighted in this reading was the pi of sanity counsel on the inferiorstandledge of offal’s segregate-amongy-proceeds inchoate the wilful medicating lowergraduates. Calculate the pi of inhospitableness to medical inferiorstandledge to twin-fellow the original year and elder medical lowergraduates. The inquiry defenseclose that troubles linked succeeding a seasonliness wilful-medications were fewer in elder medical lowergraduates as opposition to the original year novices. Close informedness of medical counsel may be infer to the low wilful-assurance of the original year medical novices 2. 0 Wilful -Medication natant university novices According to Mumtaz et al, (2011) Wilful medication mounting the probforce of illicit use of salve and salve addiction and due to this the marks of assumption are lowerlying thus are complicating the height, amount offal hindrance and invent reservedy to idiosyncrasy. On the other segregate-amongy multifarious of crowd mingled in wilful medication who sanction accountforce and are timid is a beginning saving oddity to the sanity scheme. Easy pathibility of the salve by the anewst sales increases wilful medication.
Self medication is a oddity and sortd almost in the countries all balance the universe succeeding a seasonliness divergent power. In the low and burymediate allowance countries, vulgarness of wilful medication is loftyer. This inquiry is explained that the groundd crowd incline to sort wilful medication further than ignorant crowds. According to this inquiry the quantity of wilful medication natant lowergraduates of medical and non medical is closely 80%. This consider endorses preceding reputed persomal prizes of wilful medication natant university novices. . 11 Self-Medication in Nigeria According to Fadare et al, (2011) now a day’s Self-medication is growing in the population multifarious counties as a vulgar emblem of wilful-foresight commence. Multifarious global inquiryes own explored the quantity and specialitys of wilful-medication sorts at the resident’s raze. In Nigeria, multifarious studies persuade to ascertain the quantity of wilful-medication in unconcealed; quiescent the quantity of antibiotic wilful-medication natant medical lowergraduates has not been persuadeed.
The intepeace in bemotive this sort natant this fine assemblage is due to the appearrence that they are the advenient decrees and sanity educators of the population of Nigeria. 2. 12 Evaluation of Self-Medication According to SD Sontakke et al, (2011) The Universe Sanity Organization has besides inventorized that special wilful-medication can succor unrepinings and speak malady that do not deficiency medical consideration and communicates a cheaper supply for speaking vulgar assumptions. Succeeding a seasonliness wilful-medication, the single lay-hands-ons principal accountforce for the use of wilful-medication emanations.
Every single must be informed of advantages and disadvantages of wilful medication emanations who mingled in wilful-medication sorts . at-last multifarious inquiryes has been persuadeed in divergent populations to assess the quantity of wilful-medication there is a scantity of studies on wilful-medication natant medical novices. Support of wilful-foresight is considered as providing unrepinings' entire turn to build wilful-belief in their capforce to coerce their own sanity. Unapprove other aspects of wilful-care, wilful-medication mingles the use of offals and offals own the virtual to do cheerful-natured-natured-natured as courteous-mannered-mannered as action injury. . 13 Self-medication in Sri lanka According to Wijesinghe et al, (2012) Wilful medication growing succeeding a seasonliness increasing literacy and it is smooth appreciated so as to own wilful-sufficiency for sanityful, againstactive , primitives and rehabilitative foresight . If chattelsed specially, it is succorful to lay-hands-on expenses of sanity foresight seekers. accordingly, bemotive the conduciveness of wilful-medication, the Universe Sanity Organization (WHO) has focused to lay-open temporization for regulatory office of the salves agreeable for wilful-medication. he quantity of Self-medication is very household natant women, young-person, those singles who stay balance and the singles who belongs to low financial status (SES), allowers of constant ailments and psychiatric stipulations. Multifarious inquiryes in Sri Lanka were persuadeed to city areas which own courteous-mannered-mannered built-up sanity and hospitals networks. Supply indicators such as wilful-medication power for emanation denote that wilful-medication is proportionately low in departedoral areas. 2. 14 Self-Medication shape in Punjab According to S Shveta et al, (2011) the quantity of wilful medication sorts is vulgar in the declare.
Fever, cough and unimpassioned are infers for the use of wilful-medication. The most vulgar offals which is vulgarly used for wilful-medication is tonics and livelihood supplements and it is lay-hands-onn frequently extraneously recipe. We confide that holistic advent should be lay-hands-onn to forefend this height, which hold emend inferiorstandledge and counsel regarding the wilful medication and punishment apprehensioning pharmaceutical marketing. Furtherfurther distinctly in smootht of Punjab declare ban must be implemented on anewst sale of salves. Dispensing modes in the declare insist-upond to be repaird by special teaching, regulatory and negotiative strategies. . 15 Self-Medication in Children’s According to Oshikoya et al, (2007) salve use in end is of noticeable apprehension universewide and has original a lot of regard. Various inquiryes own been manufactured in the sophisticatedized and lay-opening countries, and own all the countries visaged multifarious heights from misspeak and affront of confideed salves, and errors of medications. End conceive a larger percentage of the residents in lay-opening countries and are binding to multifarious maladyes as a pi of indigence. The elderity of salves in end are used outparty of hospitals, twain as confideed and non- confideed salves.
The principal answer by the elderity families too multifarious assumptions in their end has been fix to be use of non-prescribed salves . Self-medication is very vulgar natant sophisticated end in Nigeria. The giveed laws apprehensioning the use and sale of balance the anewst salve, decreed and non-prescribed offals must be reinforced to fix usual use of salves. 2. 16 Self-medication sorts for offal consumers According to Andualem et al, (2004) On Socio-demographic the respondents secret the speciality of offal consumers await of all age mood approve twain genders, fruitful women and breast-feeding mothers.
Self-medication maladyes that reputed very vulgarly in the respondents were debauchery, ferment, unimpassioned, respiratory entrust contamination and gastrointestinal assumptions. Teaching for the wilful-medication should be supposing to social as courteous-mannered-mannered as sanity foresight providers ;i. e; this emblem of maladyes can be largely wilful-treated and diagnosed and the offal emanations to be used in promoting the binding wilful-medication. 2. 17 Self-medication in West Uttarpradesh According to Ghosh et al, (2010) some novices reputed that they were alcoholic, smoker or mingle in some constant heights i. . non-communicable assumptions, they own close informedness encircling the salves that they use succeeding a seasonliness smoking, alcohol or allow heights succeeding a seasonliness constant assumptions. Non-seriousness cognate to the assumption is the most vulgar infer reputed for wilful-treated and for wilful-medication, preceding counsel on the salve and casualty use. 2. 18 Toll of Self-medication According to Sawalha, (2007) In An-Najah novices the vill of wilful-medication in very vulgar. Sort of speaking this mood is chattelsed either lowly or by preceding counsel.
Even material wilful-medication predictors did give in the learned assemblage, emblems of medications inferiorstandledge on the raze of wilful-foresight orientation can be momentous in analyzing the wilful-medication sorts. 2. 19 Sanity foresight strategies According to Haider et al, (1995) speakment from some medical schemes fix in elderity of smoothts. Sanity foresight commence for childhood maladyes and toll of the class and the infers for wilful-medication assess in Karachi, Pakistan. The ocean infer is the cheerful-natured-natured-natured gone-by counsel of wilful-medication. he ocean infer is the use of divergent salves by sanity functional that rule the parents for wilful-medicate to their end. Self-medication is hardenedened to classify but some counsel can be made to discountenance wickedness use of injuryful offals. 2. 20 Self-medication (WHO). According to WHO (1988) The WHO marked that Wilful medication can succor and speak malady that does not insist-upon any consideration of medication and provides a cheaper liberty for speak such vulgar assumptions. Yet, the single bears basic obligation for the use of wilful-medication emanations.
Due to wilful-medication emanations segregate-amongies should be informed encircling the benefits and abandons of wilful-medication. 3 METHADOLOGY This segregate-among-natant gives an balancesentiment of the methods to be used in the consider. Areas dressed in this segregate-among-natant conceive axioms assembly, variables, illustration and sampling techniques and design for analyzed the axioms. 3. 1 Axioms In this consider principal axioms is used for muster counsel. A scrutinize was persuadeed in 4 areas of Karachi, Pakistan during May 2012. Axioms assembly was entered using SPSS account 17 to amount described statistics.
Data analyzed entire using chi-square cupel to stay the associations discurrent variables. 3. 2 Variables Variables used in this consider are 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Requirement 3. 3 Illustration and Sampling techniques Freedom sampling techniques is use to fine respondents from Gulshan-e-iqbal area. A freedom illustration of 100 segregate-amongicipants was lay-hands-onn. A investigationnaire was nice natant segregate-amongicipants succeeding explaining the contrast of the consider and external. 3. 4 Design The design we are used. To incorporate the investigationnaires we used statistical design of chi-square.
According to Zafar et al (2008) the agent used Chi-square in his consider. 4 RESULT Table: 1 QUALIFICATION v/s VARIABLES DESCRIPTION| CHI SQUARE| SIG VALUE| RESULTS| | | | | MY ILLNESS| 29. 354| 0. 007| Reject| SELF MEDICATION| 6. 425| 0. 6| Accept| PRESCRIBE| 11. 48| 0. 321| Accept| LACK OF TIME| 16. 431| 0. 37| Accept| HIGH FEES| 7. 423| 0. 492| Accept| SIDE EFFECT| 12. 461| 0. 132| Accept| DANGEROUS| 10. 582| 0. 221| Accept| YOUNGSTERS| 12. 285| 0. 139| Accept| COMMUNICATION CHAIN| 16. 846| 0. 032| Reject| It is fix that the chi-square and sig. alue shows that the wilful medication is increasing in young-persons. the sig. estimate of the insist-uponment shows that wilful medication (0. 6), decree (0. 321), failure of occasion (0. 37), lofty fees (0. 492), segregate-amongy pis (0. 132), exposed (0. 221), young-persons (0. 139) these all variables were sanctioned and shows that are defiant to the insist-uponment Table: 2 GENDER v/s VARIABLES DESCRIPTION| CHI SQUARE| SIG VALUE| RESULTS| | | | | MY ILLNESS| 6. 053| 0. 195| Accept| SELF MEDICATION| 3. 334| 0. 504| Accept| PRESCRIBE| 9. 368| 0. 095| Accept| LACK OF TIME| 14. 038| 0. 007| Reject| HIGH FEES| 2. 38| 0. 71| Accept| SIDE EFFECT| 5. 008| 0. 286| Accept| DANGEROUS| 8. 898| 0. 064| Accept| YOUNGSTERS| 2. 356| 0. 671| Accept| COMMUNICATION CHAIN| 1. 361| 0. 851| Accept| It is fix that the chi-square and sig. estimate shows that the wilful medication is increasing in young-persons. the sig. estimate of the gender that My malady (0. 195), wilful medication(0. 504), Decree (0. 095)lofty fees(0. 71),party pis(0. 286), exposed(0. 064), young-persons(0. 671), Message obligation (0. 851) these all variables were sanctioned and shows that are defiant to the gender. Table: 3 AGE v/s VARIABLES
DESCRIPTION| CHI SQUARE| SIG VALUE| RESULTS| | | | | MY ILLNESS| 12. 914| 0. 115| Accept| SELF MEDICATION| 7. 128| 0. 523| Accept| PRESCRIBE| 7. 612| 0. 667| Accept| LACK OF TIME| 9. 468| 0. 304| Accept| HIGH FEES| 12. 789| 0. 119| Accept| SIDE EFFECT| 2. 677| 0. 953| Accept| DANGEROUS| 11. 182| 0. 192| Accept| YOUNGSTERS| 19. 388| 0. 013| Reject| COMMUNICATION CHAIN| 15. 794| 0. 045| Reject| It is fix that the chi-square and sig. estimate shows that the wilful medication is increasing in young-persons. the sig. estimate of the age that my malady (0. 115), wilful medication (0. 23), decree (0. 667), failure of occasion (0. 304), lofty fees (0. 119), segregate-amongy pis (0. 953), exposed (0. 192) these all variables were sanctioned and shows that are defiant to the age. 5 DISCUSSION In the vain of the reading resentiment wilful medication is a most vulgar sort. In this consider chiefly males mingle in wilful medication. The compute of young-persons segregate-amongicipate in this consider were 100, having age concatenate of 14-27 years, the balanceall answer is actual. There effeminates were 37 (37%) and males were 63 (63%). This shows that the noticeableer segregate-among-natant of the illustrations was lowergraduate young-persons.
In expression of gender, elderity of the young-persons who master wilful-medication are males. Moreover, the sampling methods were multitudinous natant the studies, concatenate from freedom. The incline of wilful-medication is lofty in lowergraduate young-persons as compared to the bury and metric raze young-persons. Chiefly Youngsters own a vill of wilful-medication, 63% of lowergraduates, 18% of bury and merely 19% of metric young-persons mingle in wilful medication. By the inquiry we get the emanation that crowd contemplate that they could learn their own malady themselves and that leads them to wilful medication.
Qualification and learning own maladyes are not defiant. So we sanctioned choice theory. Increasing message obligation is besides one of the noticeableer infers of increment of wilful medication in courteous-mannered-mannered fitted too. The over axioms was fix to be cheerful-natured-natured-natured adapted to oceantain from reading resentiment that the incline towards wilful medication is increasing literally. 6 CONCLUSION Wilful medication sort increasing in the young-persons of Karachi, Pakistan chiefly in males and lowergraduate young-persons lower age of 18-22.
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