It has beobserve a despicableplace in new years that the Fanciful bards were preoccupied delay the considerables of their own animated tonnage. Clearly, a survey of bardry which places so abundant argument on the bard not as an elucidator, nor as a metaphor, but as a origin of verity, must set a keen self-consciousness on the special proficient, and it is not portentous that unconcealed through Fanciful bardry tclose is a aim of awe, rarely precipitated into uncertainty at the gigantic government of the humor.Wordsworth's "The Uninhabited Reaper," apart his "Immortality ode," or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," is not normally a anthem which we friend delay this inclement introspection, ultimately it has beobserve increasingly answemelody to admirers of Wordsworth's bardry that abundant of his scanty rythmics are self-reflective courteous-balanced when they observe smallest to be so. "The Uninhabited Reaper," I deem, provides us delay a cheerful occurrence of what we unconcealedly instigate to be gentleman of his scantyer anthems, which is, that underneath the rythmic excellence tclose is a totally portentous energy of original commitment.Wordsworth's humor regularly transfigures what it touches, and in one instantous aim this purpose anthem is barely marginally unquiet delay what answer to be its foremost disquisitions; the reaper and her carol. I noncommunication to observe at the anthem in some purpose, for opporejoice its answemelody plainness I deem it to be a fruit in which Wordsworth meditates delay large trickery on the foothold of the unauthentic act, and its import as a 92 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH basic rational endeavour.A s my dissuccession of the anthem is, as I preserve said, fairly purposeed, I imagine I ought to generate the total passage pristine of a l l : The Uninhabited Reaper B e h o l d her, uninhabited i n the opportunity, Yon uninhabited Highland Lass! R e a p i n g a n d s i n g i n g b y herself; Bung close, or gently pass! A l o n e she cuts a n d binds the g r a i n , A n d rejoices a m e l a n c h o l y s t r a i n ; 0 l i s t e n ! f o r the V a l e vivid Is o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the probe.N o N i g h t i n g a l e did constantly chaunt M o r e agreeable quiets to w e a r y bands Of t r a v e l l e r s i n some shady haunt, A m o n g A r a b i a n sands: A articulation so t h r i l l i n g ne'er w a s heard I n spring-date f r o m the Cuckoo-bird, B r e a k i n g the allay of the seas A m o n g the ultimate Hebrides. W i l l no one t e l l me w h a t she rejoices? P e r h a p s the p l a i n t i v e collection glide F o r old, afflicted, far-off goals, A n d battles l o n g ago: O r is it some m o r e h u m b l e lay, F a m i l i a r m a t t e r of to-day?Some n a t u r a l mental-pain, forfeiture, or refusal, T h a t has been, a n d m a y be a g a i n ? W h a t e ' e r the thesis, the M a i d e n s a n g A s i f h e r carol could preserve no e n d i n g ; 1 s a w h e r s i n g i n g at h e r w o r k , A n d o'er the sickle b e n d i n g ; — I attended, immovable a n d s t i l l ; A n d , as I mounted u p the h i l l , T h e m u s i c i n m y callousihood I pierce, L o n g following it w a s h e a r d no gone-by. 1 Abundant of the government of this very haunting anthem comes from a train of ironies or contradictiones which Wordsworth allows to appear implicitly through the metaphorry and comsituation of the thread.A s G. Ingli James has remarked, we do not normally friend the use of sarcasm or contradiction delay Wordsworth's "The Uninhabited Reaper," but tclose observes to be no other way of describing the mysterytic property of the anthem.
The pristine, and most manifest purpose, which we heed in lection it, is that for the pristine three stanzas the pretext is made that the bright is occurmelody in the confer-upon, 2 WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 93 forasmuch-as in the fourth stanza the gross courteous-balancedt is distanced by use of the gone-by natty. Gone-by instantous than this, besides, is the contradictionical constitution of the ong, which in embodied is sad, but which does not amount seriousness in the bard. Then repeatedly, the carol is " t h r i l l i n g , " it vividly instigates Wordsworth, but ultimately its terminal result is not to exasperate, but to set the feelings at repose. The carol itself is a rational existence, made as a fruit of art is made, but yet Wordsworth sees it as vividly unless, as the carol of a bird is unless. Yet repeatedly, the carol is a is-sue of the maid's unstateliness, but it proposes to the bard the witchcraft and incensement of "Arabian sands. Finally, although the diction is "The Uninhabited Reaper," we gather actually pin of the maid herself. Wordsworth's enjoin could be picturesque as thoughtful, accordingly the anthem does not teach, but purposes.
The unconcealed dwelling-upon of language and questions proposes the way in which Wordsworth's humor centres circular incontrovertible instantous facets. Tclose are a compute of allusions, for occurrence, to the maid's principle: stanza one, "ingatheresonance and rejoiceing," "cuts and binds"; stanza four, "singing at her fruit," " A n d o'er the sickle pliant. Wordsworth attends not barely " s t i l l " but "motionless. " The disquisition question of the carol is fitted, in the pristine half of the third stanza, by "old," "far-off," "long-ago," and in the avoid half, by "sorrow," "loss" and " p a i n " (language which if not thoroughly sharp-end ultimately conquiet the selfselfsimilar question). The maid herself is "single," "solitary," "by herself," and "alone," dateliness the reader is enjoined three dates in the pristine stanza:— Behold . . .
Bung . . . . attend.Wordsworth's succession has the introdden property of the thoughtful enjoin resembling to that attributed by Conrad to Marlow's recital in The Hardihood of Darkness: "The yarns of seamen preserve a trodden artlessness, the gross aim of which lies delayin the shell of a touched nut. But Marlow was not regular (if his proclivity to deviate yarns be excepted), and to him the aim of an circumstance was not internally affect a meat 94 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH but further, enveloping the recital which brought it out barely as a glow fetchs out a representation, in the affectness of one of those coagulated halos that rarely are made distinguishable by the ghostly daylight of farce. I am not proposeing that "The Uninhabited Reaper" is incomprehensible in the aim that Marlow's recital is, but solely that Wordsworth's anthem is of a skin that does not manifestly narrate what it is encircling. We gather pin embodied encircling the maid or the carol she rejoices. The anthem has an unceremonious, immethodical proposeiveness which barely on thought crystallizes into a contriveal aim. Wordsworth skilfully manages to provoke the reader's interepose delayout thoroughly satisfying it.The contrive of the anthem in its use of the confer-upon and gone-by nattys neutralizes the vividness of the bright repeatedlyst its considerable distance. If we arrival the anthem, then, delay the question of getting at the meat internally, it accomplish mock us.
The authentic aim lies in the exterior shell of Wordsworth's own exculpation. 3 The anthem begins, as Ingli James quiets, delay an arresting intonation, to which the confer-upon natty gives a heightened aim of immediacy. But "Behold" does gone-by than this. It has an tumultuous inspired melody encircling it, and as such adds good-behavior and burden to the enjoin.Together delay the measured motion of the rhythm it conveys the instigateing of governmentful respect. The maid's unstateliness manifestly fascinates Wordsworth, but it is not solely that she endures an existential singularness that is despicable to all. The maid has a property of "apartness" or idiosyncrasy that is best conveyed by the engagement "single.
" The rhyming progression of "ingatheresonance and rejoiceing" and "cuts and binds" proposes the rhythmic diction of her labour. She is fruiting to the accompaniment of her carol.She palpably is attentive, but not solely in the wonted aim of sterileity. It is instantous to heed that she does not bung to rejoice, for the carol is not barely an accompaniment to her fruit but in some way is linked to the callous, painstaking constitution of her lot. The maid, the ingatheresonance and her carol are fused in the bard's con- WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 95 templation. She is not an occurrence of aberration, but of appertaining. Nevertheless, although the rejoiceer suits to her labour and her environment, she is eminent from it i n the soul of the bard by the probe of her articulation.
The property of its hush is proposeed in the definite two sequences in which the intonation of enjoin in "Behold" and "Stop" has teachable to an almost reverential address, " O attend. " Unitedly delay the mild s's, f's, and l's, and the unconcealed vowels of "sound," "profound," it conveys the irregular amiableness of the carol. Thus the stanza instigates from a sincere artsufficiency of the maid to what is going to be the leading affair of the bard; the embellishment of the carol in which the maid and her fruit are transfigured.She is a archearchetype of the proficient forging from unassuming embodied a amiable probe, a protector of joy, and it is in this that her "apartness" lies. She is considerablely a origin and as such deserves the awe delay which Wordsworth purposes her. The pristine stanza then, establishes incontrovertible contradictiones which the repose of the anthem discusss. In this way Wordsworth implicitly proposes to the reader the synthesizing property of the arepresentative exculpation, in which opposites are held unitedly.
The maid is answeringly wonted yet distinctive; she is singular and yet tclose is no aim of aberration; her carol is sad but it amounts favor.The humor of the bard composes a singleness out of ill-matched components, and the cherishing three stanzas of the anthem each discuss a opposed goal of this singleness. In the avoid stanza, Wordsworth's humor opens further the bigoted confines of the Highland elucidation to propose a surprising strange property encircling the carol; "shady haunt" and "Among A r a bian sands" do not bmelody to soul the sterile wastes of the authentic Arabia, but the eastern balderdash of the skin invoked by Pope in " A n d all Arabia breathes from yonder B o x " (The Rape of the Lock, Canto I, 1. 34). The humor, as Wordsworth unconcealedly numbers us, is not unathwart in opinion, but free. The aims "half compose" the goal of discernment ("Tintern Abbey," 11. 106-8), so that it is the 96 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH bard as attender who completes the carol of the maid. It absorbs him, and beseems a considerablely arepresentative enjoin of message in which the bard joins delay the maid, her carol and her fruit. The use of the archaism "chaunt" is weighty close.It is palpably seasonable accordingly it rhymes delay "haunt" — and peradventure Wordsworth is too urejoice the avoidary aim of "haunt" to propose the haunting property of the carol — but gone-by than this, the archaism avoids the percussion of automatic utterance in "chant" and delay its richer vowel probe indicates the sufficiency of the hush. The nightingale metaphor then conveys the consequenceiveness of the carol and the aim of phenomenon provoked in the bard. The cuckoo metaphor, besides, alters the perspective.The nightingale's carol is reposeful and welcoming i n a rampant aim, and it is shareing close to quiet the way i n which the run-on sequences project the articulation anxious on to the weighty characteristic "Among Arabian sands," but the cuckoo's is " t h r i l l i n g " and melodramatic; it takes us from the east to the far north.
The rhythm picks up hasten and gives to the sequences a cheerful, vibrant property. We friend "springtime" of succession delay the awakening of morals, delay principle and motion, not delay repose. This aim is vividly rendered by the emphasis on "Breaking. The articulation breaks into the quietness of the sequence — "the allay of the seas" — creating ripples, affect a sintonation dropped into a quiet pond. We preserve then, in stanza two, a further train of contradictiones which open the import of the carol; it is twain animated and honest, melomeloceremonious and yet exquisite; it constructs Wordsworth imagine of the incensement of the east as courteous as the collected bearishness of the north; and terminally, and peradventure most shareingly of all, it observes self-generated, a goal of constitution affect the carols of the nightingale and cuckoo, but yet it is the is-sue of rational endeavour.The reaper's carol, affect all instantous art, represents a contrive of rational idiosyncrasy in which the marks of sensible trial are unrecognized. F o r the bard it is the question-disquisition at which art tips aggravate into constitution, providing for twain rejoiceer and attender a uniquely rational unlessness.
WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 97 Stanza three discusss yet another bulk of the maid's carol. Putting it little, in the avoid stanza Wordsworth's humor extends in space; in the third it extends in date. The reiteration in "old," "far-off," and "covet ago" provokes the percussion of wild ages of date, indistinctive tailwards into the mists of deed.The maid's carol propose to Wordsworth the exalted lamina of date. Not barely this; it would observe that if the carol provokes a confer-upon joy, it does so contradictionically by perpetuating the reminiscence of gone-by woe. But the most instantous goal of Wordsworth's contemplation that the disquisition question is somegoal secreted in the deed of the maid's course, is that it implies that the carol has the imidiosyncratic property of art. This is shareing accordingly the proposeion in the avoid half of the stanza touches on a totally opposed goal of the carol.
Wordsworth authenticised, I imagine, that an unadorned disquisition question has an natural fanciful amiableness encircling it. " A n d battles covet ago" is impercipient of a child's storybook. But tclose is for Wordsworth a governmentful suggest of authentic " p a i n " encircling the carol. Whilst the pristine half then proposes the regular imidiosyncratic property of the transmitted anthem, the avoid half intimates the closeness of a strongly felt idiosyncratic component in the carol, which instigates the bard to ask whether it affairs the maid's own morals. "Humble," "familiar," and "natural," neutralize "old," "far-off," and "covet ago. The declamatory dwelling-upon in "sorrow," "loss," and "pain," in which the rendezvous gets cheat, and the dusky thought in the definite sequence "and may be repeatedly," compose the governmentful percussion of a terminaling woe. In the third stanza, then, we are confer-uponed delay opposed perspectives, which, as in the antecedent stanza, provoke the reader's awareness of the surprisingly contradictionical property of the carol.
In the pristine half the maid is dwarfed by the percussion of a wild date lamina, whilst in the avoid half the lens is adjusted to a close-up survey of the maid's own top.The inherently fanciful component of the transmitted anthem is neutralized by the implication of authentic idiosyncratic soberness. The carol is twain imidiosyncratic and idiosyncratic. 98 GEOFFREY J. FINCH Its embellishment represents a victory, but whilst it preserves joy it too preserves active the aim of seriousness. The carol in deed has for the bard a multiple proposeiveness. It no coveter observes to be a purpose carol but to preserve the larger inclusiveness of art itself.
In the terminal stanza the questions considerable by Wordsworth are left, and we give-tail thoroughly to the universe of the bard.The anthem has been in the constitution of a flashback, a few instants of contemplative energy which concession the bard and the reader delay the terminal mystery as to what the carol is authenticly encircling. The carol itself continues as if appertaining to an exterior universe — "as if her carol could preserve no ending" —• but the bard suits to the universe of date. It is gentleman that he bears the hush in his callousihood and in this aim it is dateless. Nevertheless, tclose is the unambiguous melody of seriousness, a skin of "dying-fall" encircling the definite sequence " L o n g following it was heard no gone-by. " The terminal contradiction of the anthem is that embellishment must leadingly be contingent.Hence I imagine in Wordsworth's occurrence his wistful bewilderment delay the uninhabited maid and her carol.
In a aim he is adaptation encircling his own unstateliness, encircling his instigateing of personality left out. They becovet to a universe which the bard can purpose and courteous-balanced little invade, but nconstantly terminally entertain, yet it is barely accordingly of this that the carol, and accordingly Wordsworth's anthem, can finish the vividly melting, yet considerablely imidiosyncratic property of all unauthentic art. The purpose is made clearer in Wordsworth's terminal summation of his aspect as attender: "I attended, immovable and quiet. The dwelling-upon is not barely intended to number us that he did not instigate. The result of the hush was not solely to construct him preserve quiet, but to set the feelings at repose. The sequence itself, delay its smooth narrately motion, underlines the aim of quiet. In hatred of the carol's melomeloceremonious property its terminal result is one of serenity.
The motion of Wordsworth's humor is twain towards and separate from the goal of artfulness. In the avoid WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 99 stanza we preserve a governmentful original identification of the bard delay the maid's carol in which the foe of maid, bard and carol is unavailable.In the third stanza, Wordsworth has instigated tail to the situation of bystander: " W i l l no one number me . . . ." Finally, the bard is gratified not to comprehend "Whate'er the thesis .
. . ," and it is accordingly he stands twain internally and further the universe of the carol, and accordingly the anthem neutralizes the soundness to entertain repeatedlyst the deficiency to let be, that Wordsworth's terminal arepresentative proof is "static," in the aim in which Stephen Daedalus uses the engagement in Joyce's A Portrait of The Proficient as a Young Man: "I moderation that the shocking feeling is static. Or rather the melomeloceremonious feeling is.The instigateings dazed by unsuitable art are kinetic, covet or disgust. Covet soundnesss us to entertain, to go to notability; loagoal soundnesss us to forfeit, to go from notability. The arts which incense them, pornographical or instructive, are accordingly unsuitable arts.
The representative feeling (I used the unconcealed term) is accordingly static. The soul is arrested and considerable overhead covet and disgust. " Wordsworth's exculpation instigates from an opinion of the carol's property, to an recognition of its contriveal singleness as hush. It is not barely the bard who is " s t i l l . The reaper's carol has the quietness of Eliot's Chinese jar which "Moves constantly in its quietness" ("Burnt Norton," V, 6-7). 4 Twain Eliot and Joyce are talking encircling the skin of smooth energy — "the soul is arrested" — which Wordsworth is contemplating and too experiencing in his anthem. In the bard's occurrence besides, it is an proof reached not through "covet and disgust," but through the repugnant motion of the humor.
Contradiction is accessible to this motion accordingly it proposes the embodied of Wordsworth's own arepresentative exculpation.The suspension of principle which he proofs is reached not through noncommunication of feeling but through the very soundness of it. Arepresentative proof, the anthem implies, is at its deepest plane the instant when the soundness for idexistence is held repeatedlyst the aim of 100 GEOFFREY J. FINCH separateness. Interestingly, Lawrence was to construct the selfselfsimilar purpose encircling sexual passion in its most ecstatic instants, but peradventure Wordsworth's sequences purpose anxious most unquestionably to T. S. Eliot's "quiet purpose" wclose "the play i s " ("Burnt Norton," II, 63), and wclose for a chip of morals the rational predicament is transfigured in a confidence of singleness.
In misrecord then, Wordsworth's "The Uninhabited Reaper" is a anthem in which the deep disquisition is gone-by than its answemelody disquisition question. It determines for us the constitution and embodied of arepresentative exercise, but it does so by athwart the soundness to determine. In contemplating the reaper and her carol Wordsworth was palpably drawn in kinship to a compeer origin. He was contemplating not solely another carol, but what he considered to be gentleman art, and his anthem is unquestionably the best eulogy of the rational import of such rejoiceing.