Muslim Law •It has been contended that the Mohammadan Law as to feedlihood is a law of defective belief striking a inferential and not a juridical belief. According to the Fatawa-i-Alamgiri “livelihood comprehends prop, vesture and berth though in spiritnear parlance it is scant to the chief. ” •As per the Hedaya all those things which are sure to the feedlihood of vitality such as prop, vestments and berth may incarcescold its simply to prop. Thus a idiosyncratic is entitled to feedlihood - •If he has no quality •Is connected to obligor among prohibited class The obligator is in a columnure to feedlihood him The idiosyncratics entitled to feedlihood as per Muslim Law are: i) Wife, ii) Descendants, iii) Ascendants, iv) Other kinsmen Livelihood of Helpmate •The feedlihood of helpmate below Muslim Law can be thoughtful below two heads: i) Livelihood during patronage of wedlock, and ii) Livelihood on dissever •The belief to pay feedlihood to a helpmate during the patronage of wedlock arises out of the footobstruct arising out of a operative wedlock or a pre connubial concurrence. •Thus feedlihood of helpmate can be thoughtful below the subjoined heads -Maintenance on i) Patronage of wedlock Arising out of A)Status B) Ante-connubial concurrence ii) Alienation of wedlock A) Below Cr. P.
C. B) Succeeding Act of 1986 During perpetuation of wedlock i) Arising out of footobstruct – Below Muslim Law, the mate is frisk to practise his helpmate as crave as she is staunch to him and obeys his permissible and abstemious instruction. The wedlock quiescent should be a operative wedlock and not which is unfilled or riotous. As-well-behaved the belief does not comments if the helpmate has not acquireed puberty but commences on the information of puberty. In Badruddin v.Aiyasha Begum (1957) All LJ 300, it was held that where a mate marries a proccurrence helpmate or keeps a employer, the helpmate may dregs to feed delay the mate and quiescent assertion feedlihood. ii) Arising out of Abridge - Below Muslim Law, sure ante connubial and column connubial concurrences invadeed into betwixt deal-outies to a wedlock are operative and enforceable.
The mate and helpmate or their guardians may invade into an concurrence whereby a helpmate is entitled to restore feedlihood from her mate on the happening of some fixed fact such as ill matter or disconcurrence or mate’s proccurrence wedlock etc.ON DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE OPTION TO BE GOVERNED BY CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE If a disseverd dowager and her preceding mate approve, by affidavit or any other profession in fitness, either jointly or individually, that they would promote to be inferior by the conditions of Sections 125 to 128 of the Regulation of Criminal Procedure, and imargue such affidavit or profession in the Solicit hearing the contact, the Magistscold shall classify of such contact entreatysantly.The description to Adolescence 125 states that “Wife” includes a dowager who has been disseverd helpmate, or has obtained a dissever from, her mate and has not remarried. Below the new adolescence 125 Cr. P. C. the assertion of the helpmate could not be defeated by divorcing her.
However, below Adolescence 127 (3) (b) the Magistscold was ordained to blot-out his appoint ignoringed below Adolescence 125 on demonstration that the dissevere has ordinary from her mate the total of the sum which below illustrative of idiosyncratical law was paytelling on such dissever. This below Muslim Singular Law was fascinated to be Mahr.A disseverd dowager instrument a Muslim dowager who was married according to Muslim law, and has been disseverd by, or obtained dissever from her mate in accordment delay law. But below Fazlunbi v. Khader Vali, (1980) 4 SCC 125, the Supreme Solicit intermittent the firmness in Bai Tahira plight andJustice Krishna Iyersaid : “The liquidation of an quantity, illustrative or other……must inset the fixed of preventing inanition and providing a sum which is further or near the introduce value of the monthly feedlihood remuneration the dissevere may deficiency until expressionination or remarriage….The Solicit by enacting Adolescence 125 to Adolescence 127 charges the solicit delay cosmical belief of enforcing feedlihood ……… Neither idiosyncratical law nor other salvationary entreaty accomplish obstruct across the management of general law pervading Adolescence 127 (3) (b)……” Bai Tahira v. Ali Hussain Fissalli Chhothia and another, AIR 1979 SC 362 On a weak lection of the description (b) of Sec.
125 (1) of the Regulation it is manifest that full disseverd helpmate, incorrectly choice, is entitled to the favor of feedlihood remuneration and the alienation of wedlock fabricates no distinction to the equittelling below the ordinary regulation.The object of the conditions in Chapter IX has a collective object. Adolescence 125 requires as a sine qua non for its contact, omission by mate or senior. Where in a request by a disseverd helpmate u/s. 125 the mate did not inquire himself to argue that he was giving remunerations to the disseverd helpmate, his plight, on the adverse, was that she has forfeited her assertion accordingly of dissever and the antecedent accord ordinance held that the mate had no plight of non omission and hence the basic predicament of omission to practise was deportmently.RIGHTS A Muslim dowager at the era of dissever is entitled to the subjoined: •A abstemious and self-possessed edibles and feedlihood to be made and compensated to her among the iddat end by her preceding mate; •Where she herself practises the result born to her anteriorly or succeeding her dissever, abstemious and self-possessed edibles and feedlihood to be made and compensated by her preceding mate for a end of two years from the relative conclusions of family of such result; •An spring congruous to the sum of mahr or dower accordd to be compensated to her at her era of her wedlock or at any era theresucceeding according to Muslim law; and •All the appertinentties absorbed to her anteriorly or at the era of wedlock or succeeding the wedlock by her harmonys or friends or the mate or any harmonys of the mate or his friends.An quantity congruous to the sum of mahr or dower accordd to be compensated to her at her era of her wedlock or at any era theresucceeding according to Muslim law; and •All the appertinentties absorbed to her anteriorly or at the era of wedlock or succeeding the wedlock by her harmonys or friends or the mate or any harmonys of the mate or his friends.
APPLICATION Where A abstemious and self-possessed edibles and feedlihood or the quantity of mahr or dower due has not been made or compensated or •The appertinentties referred to overhead possess not been delivered to a disseverd dowager on her dissever, •She or any one duly authorised by her may, on her interest, fabricate an contact to a Magistscold for an appoint for liquidation of such edibles and feedlihood, mahr or dower or the offer of appertinentties, as the plight may be.Where an contact has been made by a disseverd dowager and the Magistscold is deportmently that- •her mate having tit instrument, has failed or omissioned to fabricate or pay her among the iddat end a abstemious and self-possessed edibles and feedlihood for her and the result; or •the quantity congruous to the sum of mahr or dower has not been compensated; or •that the appertinentties possess not been delivered to herHe may fabricate an appoint, among one month of the conclusion of the filing of the contact, frequenteding her preceding mate to: •Pay such abstemious and self-possessed edibles and feedlihood to the disseverd dowager as he may deal-outicularize as fit and appertinent having i-elation to the deficiencys of the disseverd dowager, the criterion of vitality enjoyed by her during her wedlock and the instrument of her preceding mate or, as the plight may be. •Make an appoint for the liquidation of such mahr or dower or •The offer of such appertinentties as referred to overhead to the disseverd dowager FAILURE TO PAY If any idiosyncratic across whom an appoint has been made fails delayout tit origin to give-in delay the appoint, the Magistscold may •Issue a assure for levying the quantity of feedlihood or mahr or dower due in the deportment supposing for levying fines below the Regulation of Criminal Procedure and •May ignoringage such idiosyncratic, for the total or deal-out of any quantity retaining uncompensated succeeding the dissuasive of the assure, to durance for a expression which may expand to one year or until liquidation if foregoing made, material to such idiosyncratic nature heard in guiltlessness and the said ignoringage nature imposed according to the conditions of the said Code.FAILURE TO MAINTAIN HERSELF AFTER IDDAT PERIOD Where the Magistscold is deportmently that A disseverd dowager has not re-married and Is not telling to practise herself succeeding the iddat end, •He may fabricate an appoint frequenteding such of her harmonys who would be entitled to possess her quality on her expressionination according to Muslim law to pay such abstemious and self-possessed feedlihood to her as he may deal-outicularize fit and appertinent, having i-elation to the deficiencys of the disseverd dowager, the criterion of vitality enjoyed by her during her wedlock and the instrument of such harmonys and such feedlihood shall be paytelling by such harmonys in the proportions in which they would possess her quality and at such ends as he may enumescold in his appoint.WHERE THERE ARE CHILDREN Where such disseverd dowager has result, the Magistscold shall appoint mehope such result to pay feedlihood to her, and in the fact of any such result nature unqualified to pay such feedlihood, the Magistscold shall appoint the committers of such disseverd dowager to pay feedlihood to her: Bai Tahira v. Ali Hussain Fissalli Chhothia and another, AIR 1979 SC 362 No mate can assertion u/s. 27 (3) (b) discharge from his belief below Adolescence 125 towards a disseverd helpmate negative on demonstration of liquidation of a sum social by illustrative of idiosyncratical law whose quantum is further or near tit to do province for feedlihood remuneration.
The liquidation of illusory quantitys by way of illustrative or idiosyncratical law requirement accomplish be considered in the decrease of feedlihood scold but cannot efface that scold unnear it is a abstemious replace. The object of liquidation below any illustrative or idiosyncratical law must be to neutralize inanition of the dissevere and to yield her delay wherewithal to practise herself. •The total object of Sec. 127 (3) (b) is manifestly to recognise the replace feedlihood arrangement by hunch sum liquidation organised by the usage of the fraternity or the idiosyncratical law of the deal-outies. •There must be a equittelling harmony betwixt the sum so compensated and its immanent as edibles for feedlihood to render incorrectly is to stultify the device. WHERE PARENTS ARE UNABLE TO PAYIf any of the committers is unqualified to pay his or her divide of the feedlihood aptelling by the Magistscold on the basis of his or her not having the instrument to pay the identical, the Magistscold may, on demonstration of such weakness nature replete to him, appoint that the divide of such harmonys in the feedlihood aptelling by him, be compensated by such of the other harmonys as may show to the Magistscold to possess the instrument of paying the identical in such proportions as the Magistscold may imagine fit to appoint. WHERE DIVORCED WOMAN HAS NO RELATIVES •Where a disseverd dowager is unqualified to practise erself and she has no harmonys as mentioned overhead or any one of them possess not sufficient instrument to pay the feedlihood aptelling by the Magistrate, the Magistscold may, by appoint frequented the State Wakf Board, functioning in the area in which the dowager resides, •To pay such feedlihood as deal-outicularized by him or, •As the plight may be, to pay the divides of such of the harmonys who are unqualified to pay, at such ends as be may enumescold in his appoint.
Livelihood below Muslim Singular Law: •Maintenance is as-well-behaved expressioned as Nafaq in Muslim Law.The signal Nafaq instrument prop, daily compensation and berth. •below Islamic law congruous to the Christian law, the helpmate is entitled to feedlihood from the mate. But below the Hindu law and Parsi law either confederate are entitled to feedlihood. Below the Islamic law the province to practise the helpmate arises as shortly as she reaches puberty. The Islamic law differs in this inferiorgoing as compared to other idiosyncratical laws where feedlihood is supposing irrelative of the age of the assertionant i. e.
the content of puberty is not considered. Below the Islamic law, helpmate causes the assertion of feedlihood if she is undutiful and dregss to be free at all eras. This is not so below the other idiosyncratical laws. The helpmate does not cause assertion of feedlihood by nature undutiful. The helpmate below those idiosyncratical laws causes their assertion by contents such as rewedlock and unchastity. The helpmate is as-well-behaved entitled to feedlihood in accordment delay the conditions laid in the kabirnama. This inferiorgoing of Muslim law is listless in other idiosyncratical laws, where there is no edibles of feedlihood according to any abridge.
Maintenance below Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986: •A disseverd Muslim dowager is entitled to assertion feedlihood below Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 (MWA). •The Muslim dowager can assertion for feedlihood from her mate mehope during the iddat end. However, the SC in the landmark plight of Daniel Latiffi v. Union of India, rendered S. 3 (1)(a) of MWA in such a deportment that the mate has to fabricate a abstemious and self-possessed edibles for feedlihood during the iddat end for the forthcoming of the disseverd helpmate.After the iddat end if the disseverd helpmate is unqualified to practise herself then she has to hope upon her consanguine harmonys – result, committers and other harmonys who would be entitled to divide from her quality. •This is another inferiorgoing in which the Islamic law differs from the other idiosyncratical laws – below Islamic law the belief of feedlihood is not simply upon the mate, which is the plight delay the other idiosyncratical laws, but as-well-behaved upon the consanguine harmonys.
If she has no such harmonys or such harmonys do not possess the instrument to practise her and she is as-well-behaved not telling to practise herself, then the solicit can frequented the State Wakf Board to practise her. The Livelihood of Women Act (MWA) succeeding its order disallowed helpmate to assertion feedlihood below CrPC. Quiescent the helpmate can assertion feedlihood below CrPC if twain the deal-outies accord to be inferior by CrPC, which is unreasonefficient as S. 3 of MWA is in favour of the mate as compared to S. 125 of CrPC. Thus, we can see that the Hindu, Christian and Parsi idiosyncratical laws are wholly congruous to each other, seeing Islamic law has abundant matchless marks.However, delay the consequence of Daniel Latiffi plight, the pith of the edibles of feedlihood sediment congruous i.
e. the mate is principally grateful to pay feedlihood to the helpmate. Despite the muslim women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 the former dispute was resurrected in Arab Ahemadhia Abdulla v. Arab Bail Mohmuna Saiyadbhai, AIR 1988 Guj. 141. The vindication in this plight was that in expressions of Adolescence 3 (1) (a) of the Act, the feedlihood remuneration was paytelling among the iddat end, which indicated that it was compensated mehope during the iddat and not further it.Rejecting this vindication the solicit telling out that the Act nowhere fixed the end for which she was entitled to get feedlihood, nor did the Act yield that it was to be for iddat merely.
Therefore, the signal among meant that he was frisk to fabricate and pay the edibles and feedlihood further the inertness of iddat. MAINTENANCE TO CHILDREN AND AGED PARENTS •The belief to practise result is a idiosyncratical belief and arises out of race kinsmenhip as well-mannered-behaved-behaved as a inferential province, which is backed up by statutory conditions. Hindu Law •There are two idiosyncratical law figures amongst the Hindus, which beget an belief to practise result – HAMA and HMA Livelihood of Children: •Section 20 of HAMA imposes an belief upon the committers –woman and senior, twain congruously to practise the result – twain genuine and illicit. This is a matchless mark of the Hindu law where twain the committers are congruously chargeefficient on to practise the result. S. 20 (2) of HAMA romance down that the result are entitled to feedlihood during their adolescence.This equittelling of feedlihood for the daughter is expanded dress she gets married.
The committers are grateful to inferiorgo her wedlock expenses. Quiescent uniform succeeding wedlock a junior married daughter, if she is unqualified to practise herself then she can assertion for feedlihood below S. 125 CrPC. When an contact has been improved below adolescence s24 and 25 of HMA, the result are as-well-behaved entitled to get feedlihood if the assertionant has the allegiance of practiseing them i. e. the assertionant’s equittelling to feedlihood as-well-behaved includes the equittelling of feedlihood of the result.Section 26 of HMA as-well-behaved yields that in any behavior below the Act the solicit can from era to era ignoring interim instruction and fabricate conditions in i-elation of the care, feedlihood and command of the junior result.
This is a matchless mark of Hindu law where the feedlihood can be supposing to the result not necessarily below a conjugal behavior mehope but incorrectly as-well. Livelihood of committers: •S. 20 of HAMA as-well-behaved romance down an belief of feedlihood o f old and irresolute committers who are not telling to practise themselves out of their own idiosyncratical hues and quality.The HAMA is the chief figure in India, which imposes an belief on the result to practise their committers. The belief to practise is not mehope scant to the sons but it as-well-behaved expands to the daughters. Below HAMA, twain the woman and the senior possess an congruous equittelling to assertion feedlihood. The description to this adolescence as-well-behaved includes stepwoman in the expression committer.
Quiescent it is considertelling to silence that the adolescence imposes an belief to practise mehope those committers, who are unqualified to practise themselves and consequently the belief to practise the committers other than those irresolute and unqualified, is mehope inferential.Parsi And Christian Laws •Maintenance of result: Below the Parsi and the Christian Laws as-well-behaved there are conditions for the care, feedlihood, command etc of the junior result, which are congruous to the Hindu law, uniform though there is no local edibles for feedlihood unequally HAMA •However, it is considertelling to silence that below these idiosyncratical laws, the feedlihood of the junior offshoot can be awarded mehope during the conjugal behavior and not incorrectly.Maintenance of committers: Below the Parsi and Christian Laws there is no edibles striking an belief upon the result to practise their committers. The committers who omission to solicit feedlihood can do so mehope below the CrPC. Islamic Laws •Maintenance of result: Below the Muslim idiosyncratical law, genuine (junior as well-mannered-behaved-behaved as important) and ilgenuine result are entitled to assertion feedlihood. The belief of feedlihood of genuine result is primarily on the senior. Which is divergent from the other idiosyncratical laws which yields for an congruous belief on twain the committers) •A Muslim senior is below an belief to practise his sons until they acquire the age of puberty and the daughter dress she gets married.
The Muslim senior is not litelling to practise his adult son unnear he is disabled by irresoluteity or ailment. Quiescent if the senior is penniless and incaptelling of achieveing, then it is the burden of the woman to practise the result.If twain the committers are penniless and incaptelling of achieveing then grandsenior has to yield for the result. Seeing the belief of feedlihood of the ilgenuine result is simply on the woman. •The quantum of feedlihood can be qualified or blot-outled on the veer in mood. •Maintenance of committers: Below the Muslim Law, congruous to the Hindu law, result possess an belief to practise their committers. According to Mulla, result in gentle mood should practise his senior and woman uniform if they may be telling to achieve bigwig.