Reply to students responce in 150 signification and 1 reference   -Your grandfather has vast credulity in fetters and has heard environing some “high comply fetters” that are profitable.  He has asked you for your judgment.  What direction succeed you furnish him? I would direct him to stat far from junk fetters unclose he easily implicit the imperil associated to this form of siege.  Junk fetters are to-boot disclosed as fanciful degree fetters.  These forms of fetters pay remarkable dividends consequently there is no faith rating associated to the fetter.  There is a remarkable haphazard of forfeit delay junk fetters which in incline earns a remarkable reincline on siege (ROI).      -Why do chance high companies frequently appropriate preferred hoard for their equity aspect? Preferred hoard has a par rate and a agricultural quantity in dividends that must be compensated anteriorly paying any low hoard.  There is no punishment for not paying preferred hoards if it keeps the congregation out of noncommunication (Ehrhart, M.C., & Brigham, E.F., 2015).  If the congregation liquidates for any argue, the preferred hoard holders would assent-to acquittal earlier to low hoard holders.  Preferred hoard is balance expensive than low hoard thus-far, preferred hoard allows for grater guide delay electing governing agencies who instal mangers to amplify the congregation. -Explain how afford and require influences the charge of low hoard.  The balance there is of triton, the close the require succeed be.  On the other index, the close there is of triton, the balance estimable the work, advantage, or assiduity becomes and hereafter the balance require there is.  This is the postulate of afford and require.  If the husbanding continues to amplify delay a bullish trade, the real rate succeed initiate to melt.  This in incline creates a require for balance hoard.  Investors are to-boot cognizant of concern rates melt, if rates melt, require for divides reduces.  This is due to the deed that funds possess to be diverted for other siege opportunities.  If a detail congregation or assiduity is doing vast, the require for that detail divide increases.  Demand for hoard can be manipulated delay the repurchasing of divides when the congregation reduce the quantity of divides that are profitable to the low customer.  When the congregation is in scarcity of funds, it succeed hawk those divides, hence creating a reduce in require and balance saturating the trade delay their close than estimable divides.