This monograph describes the subject of the London Ambulance Services (LAS) Notice Address Administration by using Administration thinking as the enlightenment address implements and appraises its collision in the bestowal of the utilitys of the organisation. The offspring of some of the demands and concludementes of the LAS in-point the offspring bordering the failed Computer Aided Solicit (CAD) administration was too discussed and suggestions made on how the London Ambulance Services could mend its enlightenment address in conditions of notice sharing in ordain to end capacityful concludement in its daily performances.
Keywords: Enlightenment address administrations; notice address; administrations thinking; London Ambulance Services; Computer Aided Solicit (CAD)
Knowledge address entangles the merit, storage, revival, collision, race, and reconsideration of the enlightenment amiables of an form in a coerceled way (Watson, 2003).The scope of enlightenment address is to qualify an form to coerce its notice utensil and enlightenment utensil by remembering and useing experiment as this is meditateed as the basis of forthcoming economic synodetitiveness (Watson, 2003). Enlightenment address spreads throughout an form from the notice address administrations to marketing and civilized utensil (Aykin, 2007).
Information could be seen as the foremost key pith to enlightenment address in an organisation. Notice is cherished as the resigned of what is substituted aback a while the outer globe as we appoint to it, and fashion our appointment felt upon it (Stahl, 2008). It encompasses storage of embodied utensil, as polite-mannered-mannered as the holding of other herd in the assemblage (Aykin, 2007). According to Davenport (1993), making notice and message indicative and adapted would slight fashion it balance coercelable; and adapted notice is too discusseffectual which ends to extensiond mutuality. In a nut-shell, notice address symmetricalityes should include the undiminished notice “rate chain” which entangles starting aback a while the restriction of the notice insist-uponments, then the store, storage, arrangement, acknowledgment, and use of the notice (Davenport, 1993).
Information and enlightenment address can be meditateed as massive parallel a continuum as they manifestation harmony aback a while their matter (Watson, 2003). Notice address in an organisation can be ameliorated by using the remainder device schemening (ERP), consequently it is the administration that brings conjointly all the band’s superior transresuscitation functions conjointly and could too be used to woodall forthcoming demands and too qualify every one instituted for the band to feel flash adit to dubious notice (Marcic and Daft, 2008). Enlightenment bes on the notice prevalent, thus notice extensions enlightenment rate as is seen in IT/IS diplomacy (Wimmer, 2004).
In any polite-mannered-mannered structured form such as the London Ambulance Services, the energy of enlightenment address would to a capacityful size be on how life-supporting notice are sort distributed aback a whilein the staff and the lingernts whom they promote. This is consequently notice is a life-supporting implement which occupies a appropinquationible continueing in managerial redisintegration making and the balance and nobleer-virtue notice get direct to ameliorate exploit (Stahl, 2008).
The implicit profit of vast notice sharing and navigate synodact has been seriously subject by the unavailability of hale messages or walk administrations to patronage them. Track notice sharing can aid in device duty and divulge requirely notice to scheme the repartee exertion balance efficaciously, in-point in the pristine few hours aback the onslaught of the any strait (Aykin, 2007). In ordain to fashion efficacious and innovative national resolutions in an form, subordinates must feel notice and inoculation consequently notice provides awareness of implicit totals, opportunities, and adapted utensil, inoculation to use the implements they want to act efficaciously to coalesce the wants (Simons, 1995).
Systems thinking and administration advent in an organisation was exposed and has been in proclamation balance the late 50 years (Macdonald, et al. 2006). It is unquiet aback a while the store, assortment, construction, storage, revival and dissemination of notice and forms an weighty portio of efficacious notice and authoritative address (Ferreira, et al. 2010). Administration thinking is ascititious for the bud of the efficacious organisation – the literature organisation (Beardwell-mannered & Ciaydon, 2007). It qualifys the ability to conceptualise intricate dynamic realities aback a whilein the administrations and its outer harmonys, and then copy them in a single, consecutive way that is yet prolific aback a while purport and desireffectual of track deduction when synodulsory (Beardwell-mannered & Ciaydon, 2007).
In the subject of the London Ambulance Service, administration thinking would inevitably divulge an weighty instinct into the role of notice administrations sequentially from axioms to capta to notice to enlightenment. Notice administrations promote herd affianced in what they meditate as purportful holding, as in holdings which patronage another to afford a purportful end (Sherwood, 2002). Administration thinking entangles the conceptualization of a administration which provides patronage by pristine defining the sort of the administration (Currie and Galliers, 1999). Another profit of administration thinking is that it aids to subdue the intricateity of real-globe totals by providing a structured way of balancing a indelicate, perfect scene aback a while the gathering of the accordant flatten of point, and as such, ameliorates redisintegration insertion aback a whilein scant era (Sherwood, 2002).
London Ambulance Service
The London Ambulance Utility (LAS) is the singly NHS dependence that covers the soundnessy of London and provides unrepinings aback a while the prominent virtue of preservation to fix that unrepinings who linger aback a whilein London obtains the best soundness issue in the globe (www.londonambulance.nhs.uk). The original scope of the LAS is to obviate lives and responds efficaciously to medical emergencies (london.gov.uk ). It is managed by South West Thames Regional Soundness Example and is the catholicst ambulant utility in the globe as it covers geographical area of balance 600 balance miles, lingernt population of balance 6.8 pet herd (http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk).
The London Ambulance Utility (LAS) responds to all ‘999’ strait aggravatecomes for medical help in the chief and is staffed 24 hours a day in three eight-hour watches. The coerce capability of LAS takes an medium of 2000 aggravatecomes a day and coordinates the solicites of deportments from its fleets of ambulances, motor cycles and air ambulances (Stegwee and Spil, 2001). This earningness is endd by the aid of MapInfo technology to aid mend aggravatecome handling and repartee era as it aids the LAS to conspire the subsidence of ambulance positions, hospitals and area of noble pre-eminence aggravatecomes, as polite-mannered-mannered as schemening of the band deployment during emergencies (Nag and Sengupta, 2007).The utility has prevalent awards for notice administration address that may not be matched for years (Stegwee and Spil, 2001).
According to Rowland and Macdonald, (2005), in ordain to guard a noble virtue bestowal of all its utilitys, the members of staff from the main address to the ambulance band of the London Ambulance Utility insist-upon the holding of qualifications, experiment and qualities which include:
theoretical inoculation as would fix merit of the synodulsory enlightenment of the opportunity in which they are insist-upond to remainder.
a congresslete enlightenment of the hazards and demand of the equipment for which they are legitimate.
an sense and pointed enlightenment of the instituted performances used in the organisation for which they remainder, as polite-mannered-mannered as a unconcealed enlightenment of the instituted performances in other confirmments of concordant stamp.
a pointed instituted enlightenment of all statutory conditions, prevailing codes of performance, other codes of performance, curb embodied and their notice embezzle to their remainder, and awareness of parliament and performances, other than those which talentedness move their remainder.
Ability to teaching others.
the diameter of individuality to qualify them to divulge efficaciously aback a while their peers, any staff instituted lower their supervision, and their own supervisors.
an awareness of the prevalent buds in the opportunity in which they remainder.
an sentiment of their own delayholdings, whether of enlightenment, experiment, facilities, utensil, etc, and a aptness to state any such delayholding.
Knowledge address in the London Ambulance Utility
The London Analysts Patronage top team (LASS) exposed a axiomsset in board aback a while the London Ambulance to fix that their axioms is of amieffectual virtue and accordant for wrong redisintegration scopes. The team remainder aback a while the London Ambulance Utility to cite axioms accordant for wrong redisintegration negotiatives there by making the utility bestowal of the London Ambulance faster and uniform (data.london.gov.uk). The patronage team test incidents of assaults deterioration via a fairly obstructed quest through manifold codes and descriptions of incidents that appear in the symmetricality of responding to a 999 aggravatecome. Although the notice citeed from this assemblage is noblely weighty in testing and tracking wrongs, it is inconsequent to be unimportant synodared to the want to annals congresslimentary medical notice. Hence, this could end to near variations in the exactness of the axioms balance era and in irrelative areas in London.
Experts in wrong redisintegration nationalize the axioms collated to superdenote for offsprings, patterns and trends in unconcealed ignoringionate wrong in London and push out synodarisons and variations aback a while oral sources of instruction such as annalsed axioms from the police (data.london.gov.uk).
London Ambulance utilitys conjointly aback a while other council agencies such as the police remainder conjointly to fix that notice are securely distributed to guard exposed adults, and to fix that any signs of affront are reputed and investigated forthdelay in such a way that there is near abandon of signs of affront sort missed. They do this by inspiriting herd to tell authorities of affront, sharing notice and investigating descriptions and incidents where synodulsory (http://www.redbridge.gov.uk/cms/news_and_events/latest_news/2011/april_2011/organisations_join_forces_to_p.aspx). Through this cooperative exertion, synodulsory notice are prolificly managed and distributed whenever subjects of strait appears and aids in the deployment of synodulsory disintegrations to irrelative subjects.
Information Address Structure aback a whilein the ambulance intricatees
Information sharing is the key utensil that ameliorates the performance of the London Ambulance Services. The notice address of each national ambulance position intricate is coerceled by the national example and PCT area. An notice sharing netremainder is used to ignoring notice forciblely to further manifold units’ representatives to adit patronage in all subjects as they arise.
Through notice sharing, national example collective utilitys, original preservation, spiritual soundness and quick dependences and other embezzle agencies are networked so as to confirm a symmetrical forum to qualify favoring is schemes. This forum qualifys soundness and collective preservation remainderers to teaching the London Ambulance band of any unrepinings that may be posing concordant totals to the receptive agencies, and hereafter could ameliorate the amelioratement up of an embezzle preservation road.
In some subjects, a contravention may be held in ordain to get the unrepinings to lowercontinue nature their soundness situations. This is frequently produced by the London Ambulance Services via writing exoterication to unrepining, preservationr and promoter summoning them to portioicipate in the contravention, and during the symmetricality, all the clinical offsprings get be grounded.
A subject aback a while the London Ambulance Services
In bid to extension the earningness in the bestowal of her duties to the catholic population in London, the London Ambulance Utility introduced the Computer Aided Hasten administration to set loose that sight. This hasten administrations was hoped to continue out as it was noblely innovative administration that abundantly direct and coerce functions of the LAS starting from the acknowledgment of strait aggravatecome at the coerce capital, through resolutions on which ambulance to place to the aggravatecome, and to mobilize embezzle utensil (Howcroft and Trauth, 2005). In this intent, the aggravatecome points would be fascinated onsuccession and tracking devices would be fitted to ambulances so that their subsidences could be monitored unceasingly to ameliorate notice anxietyer via electronic integrate capability to the coerce capital, and then to either fickle axioms marginal or printers on ambulance positions (Hall, et.al. 2007).
This synoduterized solicit administration was intented by Administration Options to extension the utility bestowal of the London Ambulance Utility and was instituted into performance on October 26th, 1992. This solicit administration lasted right for few hours and then jared consequently it was not desireffectual of handling the notice loads sort placed on it, a total sort blamed on not-aapprove enlightenment address parameter such as administration thinking, as the staff and address were in eternal fight balance notice hoarding (Howcroft and Trauth, 2005; Dutton and Peltu 1996).
Some of the totals the solicit administration encountered included: after a whiledrawal of dependence in the administration sort effectual to automatically dispose deportment subsidences by staff twain aback a whilein Accessible Ambulance Coerce and ambulance bands due to after a whiledrawal of expanded inoculation. Other totals signed were demand of aggravatecomes to strain ambulances, demand to test facsimile aggravatecomes, inconsiderable prioritization of fault messages, and privation of aggravatecomes in the administration (Day, 2002; http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf).
All these totals made the administration to seal down the instant day directing the London Ambulance Services to recur to semi-manual performance (Day, 2002). An scrutiny which was ordained to enumerate the principle of the jar biblical that the administration was very intricate, making it congressromised for any effeminateware issue to unravel a accordant disintegration (Day, 2002). Besides, Administration Options had amieffectual sign but after a whiledrawaled tit experiment for intenting or unraveling packages for safety-dubious direct-and-coerce administration, otherwise they would feel signed the abandon and scheme measures to desert it, or to fix an efficacious holding (Day, 2002; Duquenoy, et. al. 2007; and Clarke, 2001). The answer of the scrutiny team too biblical that the CAD effeminateware was scant, not truly tuned and not abundantly tested (http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf).
The demand of the hasten administration was too blamed on the not-aapprove inoculation divulgen to the operators and not-aapprove testing of the administration according to a urge exempt in 1993. During the inoculation of the staff that was carried out in succession aback a while the performance of the solicit administration, the ambulance band and the appropinquationible coerce band staff were utilityable individually in irrelative capabilitys which did not direct to personal instituted harmony incompact the span (Mantas, 2004). The description of the urge exempt encircling the staff inoculation reads: “Much of the inoculation was carried out polite-mannered-mannered in track of the originally schemened implementation duration and hereafter there was a indicative “skills decay” incompact then and when staff were thus-far insist-upond to use the administration. There were too doubts balance the virtue of the inoculation supposing, whether by the Systems Options or the LAS’s own Remainder Based Trainers (WBTs) (Mantas, 2004).
This inoculation was not frequently synodrehensive and was frequently illogical. The total was exacerbated by the immutable changes sort made to the administration (Mantas, 2004). It was too reputed that one of the conclude for the demand of the London Ambulance Computer Aided Hasten attributed to the intricateity inborn in the administration intent which was purposed as those in impute of the administration bud activities had wanted to be in coerce of all practicable issue (Khosrowpour, 2003). Besides, top address hoped to byignoring the concord, and too reinstate the coercelers so as to subdue require. For this conclude, the staff of the concord were not congressromised in the bud of the administration which ended to the leaving aback the input of herd who were most experimentd aback a while the way the ambulance utility remaindered (Macauley, 1996; Rowbotham, et al. 2007).
Strategies to thwart forthcoming Crises in the London Ambulance Services
According to the muniment submitted by the London Ambulance Utility NHS Dependence (Wp85) published by the Department of Soundness in June 2005, outlined a confidence of where NHS ambulance utilitys should be aback a whilein the instant five years:
Providing indicatively balance clinical teaching to aggravatecomeers and remainder in a balance integrated way aback a while portioner organisations;
Providing and coordinating an increasing dispose of fickle soundnesspreservation utilitys for unrepinings who want forcible preservation;
Continuing to mend the virtue of utilitys to unrepinings aback a while strait preservation wants;
Providing an increasing dispose of other utilitys in original preservation, sign and soundnesspreservation furtherance.
In ordain to end the aloft confidence, counsel and bud wants for the ambulance utility remainderforce has been repurposed including all the inoculation courses to qualify the utility to supply for the want of the 800,000 unrepinings it attends to each year (House of Commons Soundness Committee Report, 2006-7).
This is why a train of opinion has argued that administrations thinking such as effeminate administrations thinking could be a way of conceptualising the collective symmetricalityes in which a portioicular assemblage of herd in an form can conceptualize their schemes and holdings they denote to lowertake (Wickramasinghe, et al. 2009). This bark of basic thinking embezzle to the proconfidence of notice administrations may not feel been truly applied in the proconfidence of the London Ambulance Utility Computer Aided Solicit administration that failed.
According to Currie and Galliers (1999), in ordain to fix personal enlightenment address and notice sharing, any bud of a diplomacy for the forthcoming synoduter aided hasten aback a whilein the London Ambulance Utility (LAS) must entangle a liberal symmetricality of board incompact address, staff, substitute concord representatives and the Service’s notice technology advisers. It may be embezzle to confirm a navigate consultative panel involving experts in CAD from other ambulance utilitys, the police and feeling brigade. http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf.
It is synodulsory that the geographical, collective and gregarious environment in which the London Ambulance Utility operates in the bestowal of her rated utilitys be expandedly carried parallel in the notice sharing and notice address of twain the LAS address and staff via organizing of symmetrical and unreserved board aback a while staff representatives (http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf).
Furthermore, symmetrical inoculation for the staff of the London ambulance Services on the use of late IT infrastructure that relates to their utility bestowal could be produced symmetrically to qualify the members of staff to adhere-to abreast of all the updated notice touching the prolific bestowal of their duties. This is consequently; an organisation that encourages literature incompact its staff promotes substitute of notice incompact employees thus creating a balance enlightenmenteffectual remainderforce. In attention, IT divulges to enlightenment capture, notice arrangement, and notice rendering.
Information is capacity, and as such, few herd in an form would approve to monopolize it instead of sharing it to arrange the apparentance of enlightenment. Notice anxietyers are up, down, and despite the form as notice is serene, distributed, divulged, and debated (Rescher, 2003). Therefore, notice sharing should be encouraged in the performances of the London Ambulance utility as this get emcapacity all the staff to be balance prolific in set looseing their duties, and get avert any calamity in forthcoming when the organisation meditates the intent of another solicit administration.
It is a apparent event that synoduter-based notice administrations are ascititious to the performance of late performancees in-point in all transholding that entails the genesis of catholic notice in an form approve the London Ambulance Service. Notice apparentance media the stage of notice sharing aback a whilein an form (Simons, 1995). Hence, in the subject of the London Ambulance Services, notice apparentance should be noble so as to guard loose anxietyer of notice to everyone in the form and not hoarding it or making it singly adapted to separated few living-souls.
Information sharing can be scedemand as a firm’s getingness to distribute key notice that is eraly, congresslimentary, sympathetic and profitable aback a while its staff, associated portioners and ultimate consumers of her utilitys. Some of these ingredients of negotiative enlightenment address were not expandedly nationalized in the circumstances that led to the demand of the London Ambulance hasten administrations. In after forthcoming intent of a CAD solicit administration that get remainder, the LAS address or any other band that get be used, and the London Ambulance should meditate conducting expanded inoculation of all their staff as portio of the result bud and implementation cycle.
System Options was reputed to feel had no anterior enlightenment of fabric solicit administrations for ambulance utilitys (Beynon-Davies, 1995), and as such should feel not reliable the propose as it falls beyond their negotiative synodetence in-point as there was nice deadsuccession to set loose the agree.
Again, the Scrutiny description answers divulge that Administration Options did not used PRINCE purpose address administration which is the accepteffectual administration for managing exoteric sector purposes, and the team had no anterior purpose address experiment (Duquenoy, 2007). This media that there was no personal enlightenment address on the interest of the London Ambulance Utility as LAS should feel fixd expanded purpose address experiment of its agreeor.
System Options failed to truly use personal administration thinking techniques as it relates to realizing the CAD purpose aback a whilein the proposed deadline. They entered the unison and could not opt out as that would feel been unnegotiative (Beynon-Davies, 1995). It is recommended that for a concludementful negotiative utility bestowal, CAD or IT/IS providing firms should guard a earnest notice and era address harmony aback a while its clients. In the subject of Administration Options and LAS, Administration non-interference should feel telled the client of their concerns balance the scant era constitute.
Beynon-Davies (1995) signed the offsprings of inconsiderable testing and virtue impudence of the solicit administration. Administration Options should feel followed the administration of negotiative administration bud and implementation ethics which synodrises of testing, virtue impudence and personal inoculation of all staff congressromised in the intent and ultimate use of the result.
Aykin, N. (2007) Usability and internationalization: Second International Contravention on Usability and Internationalization, UI-HCII 2007, held as portio of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007: proceedings, Portio 2. China: Springer.
Baskerville, R., Stage, J., and DeGross, J. I. (2000) Organizational and collective perspectives on notice technology: IFIP TC8 WG8.2 International Instituted Contravention on the Collective and Organizational Perspective on Request and Performance in Notice Technology, June 9-11, 2000, Aalborg, Denmark.
Beynon-Davies, P (1995). Notice administrations demand and abandon duty: The subject of the London Ambulance Utility Computer Aided Hasten System. Athens: European Contravention on Notice Systems.
Clarke, S. (2001) Notice Systems strategic address: an integrated advent. USA: Routledge.
Currie, W. & Galliers, R. (1999) Rethinking address notice administrations: an interdisciplinary perspective. London: Oxford University Press.
Davenport, T. H. (1993) Regularity Innovation: reengineering remainder through notice technology. London: Harvard Transresuscitation Press.
Daft, R. L. and Marcic, L. R. (2008) Sense Management. 6th Edn. London: Cengage Literature Publishers.
Day, M. (2002) Gower Handbook of purchasing address: Chartered Institute of Purchasing & Supply. USA: Gower Publishing Ltd.
Duquenoy, P., Jones, S., and Blundell, B. G. (2007) Ethical, Legal and Negotiative Issues in Computing. London: Cengage literature EMEA.
Dutton, W. H. and Peltu, M. (1996) notice and message technologies: confidences and realities. London: Oxford University Press.
Ferreira, E., Erasmus, A. & Groenewald, D. (2010). Authoritative Management. South: Juta and Band LTD.
Hall, P. A. V. and Ramil, J. C. F. (2007) Managing the effeminateware remainder: effeminateware engineering and notice administrations in matter. London: Cengage literature EMEA.
Howcroft, D. and Trauth, E. M. (2005) Handbook of dubious notice administrations research: scheme and collision. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.
House of Commons Soundness Committee Workforce schemening: Fourth description of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written manifestation. Powerful Britain: Parliament: Issue of Commons: Soundness Committee.
Kenton, B. & Yarnall, J. (2005). HR- The transresuscitation portioner: Shaping a new bearing. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Khosrowpour, M. (2003) Advanced topics in notice utensil address, magnitude 2. USA: Idea Assemblage Inc. (IGI).
Macauley L. A.(1996). Requirements Engineering. Springer-Verlag Limited, London (http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~laf/611/Chapter_3_summary.html).
Mantas, J. (2004) Global soundness notice counsel. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Mcdonald, I., Burke, C. G. & Stewart, K. (2006). Systems directership: Creating direct form. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Nag, P., and Sengupta, S. (2007) Geographical Notice Administration Concepts and Transresuscitation Opportunities. India: Concept Publishing Company.
O’Connor, J. & McDermott, I. (1997). The art of administrations thinking: Ascititious skills for creativity and total solving. USA: Thorsons Publishers.
Rescher, N. (2003). Epistemology: An vestibule to the scheme of enlightenment. USA: SUNY Press.
Rowbotham, F., Azhashemic, M. & Galloway, L. (2007) Performance Address in Context. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Rowland, D. & Macdonald, E. (2005) Notice technology law. London: Cavendish Publishing Limited.
Sherwood, D. (2002). Seeing the wood for the trees: A manager’s superintend to useing administrations thinking. London: Nicholas Brealey Publication.
Simons, R. (1995). Levers of coerce: how managers use innovative coerce administrations to solicit strategic possession. USA: Harvard Transresuscitation Press.
Stahl, B. C. (2008) Notice Systems: Dubious Perspectives. London: Taylor & Frances.
Stegwee, R. A. And Spil, T. A. M. (2001) Strategies for soundnesspreservation notice administrations. USA: Idea Assemblage Inc (IGI).
Watson, I. E. (2003) Applying Enlightenment Management: Techniques for Fabric Corporate Memories. USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Wickramasinghe, N., Bali, R. K., Lehaney, B., Schaffer, JH. I. and Gibbons, M. C. (2009) Healthpreservation Enlightenment address Primer. London: Taylor and Francis Publishers.
Wimmer, M. A. (2004). Enlightenment address in electronic council: 5th IFIP International Instituted Conference, KMGov 2004, Krems, Austria, May 17-19, 2004 : proceedings.
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/talking_with_us/freedom_of_information/classes_of_information/who_we_are_and_what_we_do.aspx (accessed on 15/04/11)
http://www.londonprepared.gov.uk/downloads/c&cprotocol_may2006.pdf (accessed on 17/04/11)
http://www.redbridge.gov.uk/cms/news_and_events/latest_news/2011/april_2011/organisations_join_forces_to_p.aspx (accessed on 18/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/health_professionals/caring_for_frequent_callers/patient_referral,_review_and_c.aspx (accessed on 18/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/about_us/what_we_do/dealing_with_major_incidents/our_experience.aspx (accessed on 19/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/talking_with_us.aspx (accessed on 21/04/11)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Ambulance_Service (accessed on 21/04/11)
http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf (accessed on 21/04/11)
http://www.nhs.uk/Services/Trusts/PatientFeedback/DefaultView.aspx?id=29236 (accessed on 23/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/working_for_us/from_our_staffs_perspective/hitesh_patel_-_information_man.aspx (accessed on 23/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/talking_with_us/freedom_of_information/introduction_and_guide_to_the.aspx (accessed on 23/04/11)
http://www.ambulex.com/Civica%20PR%20London%20Ambulance.pdf (accessed on 24/04/11)
http://www.connectinternetsolutions.com/our_work/case_studies/london_ambulance_service.aspx (accessed on 24/04/11)
http://personal.cis.strath.ac.uk/~mdd/teaching/pm/London%20Ambulance%20PM%20Presentation.pdf (accessed on 24/04/11).
http://www.lond.ambulance.freeuk.com/newsanthrax.html (accessed on 25/04/11)
http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/talking_with_us/freedom_of_information/foi_disclosure_log.aspx (accessed on 25/04/11)
http://healthcybermap.org/HGeo/london_ambulance.htm (accessed on 25/04/11)
http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson/papers/safecomp_best/ (accessed on 25/04/11)
http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/resources/IanS/SE7/CaseStudies/LondonAmbulance/LASFailure.pdf (accessed on 03/05/11).