Is a system that captures, enters stores, retrieves and processes the relevant details of business events, and generates the information/document necessary for running he organization and interfacing with external entities, such as customers. Transaction – Is the process of dlvldlng a body of data Into blocks and spreading the data blocks across several partitions on several hard disks. Features of Transaction Processing Systems 1. Rapid response – fast performance with rapid results 2.
Reliability- well designed backup and recovery with a low failure rate 3. Inflexibility – treat every transaction equally. It may be used many times each day which means it has to be precise and inflexible 4. Controlled processing – maintain speclflc requirements for the roles and responsibilities of different employees. Types of -rps Batch processing Is where the Information Is collected as a batch and then processed later on. An example of batch processing is paying by cheque.
Batch processing is useful for enterprises that need to process large amounts of data using limited resources Batch Processing system Real Time Processing is where all details of the transaction are recorded and changed at the time as It occurs. Examples of real time processing are ATM’s. The importance of data In transaction processing: Data security Is Important as data Is often confidential or has a commercial value, herefore, it needs to be protected from unauthorized access.
Data accuracy means that the data is correct and that the data is up to date (current) Data integrity describes the reliability of data. This will include statements of data currency, correct entry of data and accuracy of the data. TPS serve two purposes. 1 . To support day-to-day, routine operations by being made accessible to those parts of the organization (as well as to external entities) where they are needed. 2. To feed 1 OFA effectiveness and efficiency of the operations. The computer system mediating between the humans and physical reality in an nventory application.
Updates brought about by a transaction are of three types: Adding a new record, such as when a new customer signs up Changing an existing record, such as changes in credit available for a customer when that customer makes new purchases or returns already purchased products Deleting a record, such as when a product is discontinued TPSs are characterized by Large amounts of input/output Large number of users Huge storage requirements Low computational complexity Fast input/output as well as processing capabilities A high degree of concern for potential security related problems A high degree of oncern for reliability and fault tolerance.
Five Stages of Transaction Processing Data Entry Processing Database Maintenance Document And Report Generation Inquiry Processing Management Information Systems Provide information in the form of reports and displays to managers and many business professionals to support business decision making. A management information system is an information system that uses the data collected by the managers can use it to make routine business decisions in response to problems. Some of the reports that this information systems creates are summary, exception and ad hoc reports.
All this is done to increase the efficiency of managerial activity. Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrial sectors, aspects of the enterprise, or management substructure. Management information systems (MIS), produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems.
Decision Support Systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management to ompile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. Executive Information Systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations. Marketing Information Systems (MIS) are Management Information Systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business.
Office Automation Systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any nd all levels of management. School Information Management Systems (SIMS) covers school administration, and often including teaching and learning materials. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) facilitates the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manages the connections to outside stakeholders.
Advantages The following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of management information systems. Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees’ performance record etc. The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations. Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers.
The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. Some disadvantages can exist when using a management information system in a company. Expensive Installing a management information system can be expensive for a company. Information technology”while cheaper today than previous years”can represent a significant expense, especially for larger organizations. These systems may also require ongoing support or upgrade fees, which can represent future fixed cash outflows.
Companies must create a budget to pay for these items to ensure the information system stays current with business technology. Attempting to integrate these systems with technology currently in use can also increase expenses. Companies may need to hire maintenance individuals to help keep an electronic information system running smoothly. These individuals often need experience in omputer science functions and other business topics. Not only does this increase labor costs, but it also requires additional training and ongoing education for these individuals.
Business technology can change frequently, creating an environment where companies must have trained individuals who can properly maintain computers, websites, servers and other equipment in use by the management information system. Ineffective Management information systems have the potential to become ineffective in a company’s operations. As with all computer systems, the management information system is only as good as the programmer. Gathering unimportant or non-essential information can delay business decisions because managers must request additional input.
Spending too much time reprogramming or correcting issues can also increase the time spent in the decision-making process. Business owners and managers may also need extensive training on new systems, creating a learning curve that will hopefully diminish over time. Unemployment While information, Information Security Selection Software Evaluation Reports, they secure Information Exchange in an Insecure World, Lack of Job security, Dominant culture , there is no privacy, expensive, maintenance and ineffective.
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