“Petition the Government for Redress of Grievances”

 Discussion  "Petition the Council for Suitoperative of Grievances”


Magstadt, T. (2017). Understanding politics: Ideas, institutions, and upshots (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.  

Required Resources
Read/reconsideration the aftercited media for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 11, 12, 13
  • Lesson
  • Additional literary sources you realize through your own research

Initial Post Instructions
Analyze why older, unspotted adults signification in selections late than other clumps suitableness describing how each collective face cultivates significationrs and the role an profit clump plays in turning idiosyncratics out to the polls.

You can scrutinize collective voting foundation at the United States Census Bureau's webservice here: https://www.census.gov/topics/public-sector/voting.html (Links to an apparent service.)Links to an apparent service.

Use proof (summon sources) to subsistence your sanctionance from assigned readings or onmethod lessons, and at last two beyond literary sources.


On method Lesson:



The United States Constitution vindication-fors the suitoperative for the idiosyncratics to suitoperative the council about any grievances. This vindication-for is the indispensoperative suitoperative of the US's embodyative-juridical democracy. An leading dissect of this suitoperative is voting. Although the significationr is at the vivacity, getting policies ignoringed to negotiate after a while upshots is a manifold-sided method after a while opposed vulgar and clumps. During this week, we commence to see how diversified problems are brought through the legislative and pursue method after a while a abnormity of makers.

Player Theories

Politics is frequently considered a lateime. As in any diversion, there are players, usually at last two players aggravate each other. Understanding politics as a lateime, upper ten theories propose a inferior clump pauses administration to construct moderationingful shift in any popular method that is late amply open. Mills and Michels, twain sociologists, from the 1950s, clear-uped that merely a inferior estimate of idiosyncratics are in repress of the democracy using their currency and wave to guard their profits after a whileout mind for the generally-unconcealed amioperative (Magstadt, 2017). Michels promulgated his administration, iron law of council, chiefly noting that merely a few idiosyncratics pause the instance in any composition. Elitist theorists deem that in a democracy merely a few collective bosses from the collective dissecties and choice monied profit clumps that pause administration are regularly advancing their own profits.

The Schoice System

There are opposed types of electoral methods, and their wave on collective dissecties is leading to how these clumps compel. Single-constituent districts chiefly subsistence a two-face method, when-in-truth distributional methods acknowledge for a multiface composition.

Image of artisan placing signification in fate box

To admit a eldership of the significations in a calculate method, where the winner procures all, the platforms of inferiorer dissecties must knot conjointly to beseem vioperative contenders in the family. Therefore, there is the escapence of two hardy dissecties as a instrument of obtaining abundance significations to win the selection. However, in a method where a margin of the signification goes to the percentage of significations admitd, two-independent dissecties are not leading to naturalness embodyed. As a upshot, inferiorer dissecties keep their independent agendas during the sschoice administration, although it is immanent to peaceful n ess the want for amalgamations in this composition. When-in-truth the inferiorer dissecties can consummate truthfulness in council, a eldership must peaceful be obtained to ignoring comp. The inferiorer dissecties compel amalgamation concurments where embodyatives of each face concur to subsistence the platcompel of the constituent dissecties. Coalitions demand the accomplished subsistence of all face constituents owing the missing of one embodyative's signification can moderation that the plain eldership is obsolete.

The two most base electoral methods are a calculate method (inveterate on identical-constituent districts) and distributional truthfulness. A calculate method acknowledges for the winner to procure all. Whichever idiosyncratic wins the eldership of the signification procure administration. The United States uses this method after a whilein its federal selections. For illustration, when a presidential aspirant wins a eldership of the electoral significations, he or she procures service. This method acknowledges for a plain face platcompel to escape, but so demands those after a whilein the lad to sanction the administration of a dissimilaritying eldership.

In dissimilarity, a distributional method grants truthfulness to all dissecties by the promargin of the signification they admitd during the selection. For illustration, in an Israel parliamentary selection, each collective face is supposing a estimate of seats inveterate upon the estimate of significations it admitd. So, if Face A won 10% of the signification, they would win 10% of the parliamentary seats. This method encourages the compelation of manifold junior dissecties owing it grants a articulation to all the dissecties after a whilein the council composition.

The Actors: Collective Parties and Profit Groups

Whether you ensue politics or not, there is trivial dubitate that you own heedkenkend of a dissecticular profit clump or collective face. They are a inheritance in our common,ordinary lives. The subject of embodying the idiosyncratics demands that the council heedkenkenken to the idiosyncratics. But after a while so manifold articulations demanding to be heedkenkend, a identical articulation can easily be obsolete in the pack. Profit clumps and collective dissecties compel to aid the identical in his or her endeavor to be heedkenkend aggravate the cries of the manifold owing as late and late idiosyncratics succeed conjointly, their demands beseem hardyer and louder.

Intepause clumps and collective dissecties own some congruousities. They twain endeavor to superiority generally-unconcealed management. Where they dissent from one another is to whom they vindication when all is said and performed. An profit clump responds merely to itself and its constituents. It lobbies politicians and may uniform run ads to subsistence dissecticular aspirants, but in the end, it is beyond of council. An profit clump is not lawful to the generally-known. It embodys merely the unfair and casually penniless, designs of its dissecticular profit.

In dissimilarity, a collective face is apprehendd of embodyatives who besides vindication to the generally-known. Their design is to win selections, not proportioned raise their profits. In doing so, they must own a greatly broader platcompel than merely one object. It is husk of approve the dissentence betwixt effecting for the retired versus the generally-unconcealed sector. Although the job may own the identical responsibilities, in the leading, you embody the profits of your community, and in the prevent, you embody the profits of the idiosyncratics.

The Ultimate Actor: The Voter

Large pack pauseing signs

The collective face's job is to win selections, and the way to win is to get desiroperative citizens to the polls to signification. In the US's embodyative council, the idiosyncratics signification on embodyatives to the Executive and Legislative offshootes. This voting, though, is not performed in a vacuum; instead, there are a abnormity of makers consecrated to getting idiosyncratics to the polls, superioritying generally-unconcealed estimation, and assistant after a while ignoringing laws, inchoate manifold other responsibilities. Before any generally-unconcealed management can be implemented to harangue the idiosyncratics's upshots, a aspirant must be significationd into the service, which is why collective dissecties effect diligently to get idiosyncratics to the polls to signification for their idiosyncratic. Profit clumps, so, effect after a while their constituents to get idiosyncratics to the polls to signification. If the aspirant wins, then the profit clump effects after a while the aspirant to ignoring customous comp for the object.

Elitist theorists would imply that the idiosyncratics are not the vivacity of the US popular method, rather profit clumps after a while wild media, in-point currency, are in repress. This jealousy became late keen when the US Supreme Court, the main pursue in the US, ruled that limits on currency in collective contests were unnatural. Elitist theorists would clear-up that gone this proliferation of specie into the sschoice method, the profit clumps are in repress. Particularly oppressive is that Justices of the Supreme Pursue are appointed rather than significationd into service.

The Supreme Pursue and Its Power

The pursues embody an profiting offshoot of the U.S. council. The Juridical Offshoot is the merely offshoot whose first administrations are not defined in the Constitution, and it is so arguably the last popular offshoot of council owing its constituents at the federal flatten are appointed for vivacity. Nevertheless, the pursues own played an leading role in promoting and advancing balance and democracy in the United States.

According to the Constitution, the ancient administration of the Supreme Pursue was to accommodate as the proof pursue for all subjects in which the federal council or its ambassadors were named in the subject. The Supreme Pursue was created so that specifys could not sue the federal council in specify pursues. Uniform though this was the ancient end of the pursue, the pursue has heedkenkend merely 160 subjects inferior its ancient administration in 200 years. The first design of the Supreme Court, as it stands today, is what is unconcealed as juridical reconsideration or the force of the pursue to reconsideration the juridicality of the laws and experiences of other offshootes of council. This administration turns the pursue into the conclusive expositor of the Constitution, giving it a very administrationful role. But this administration was not recognized by the Constitution itself.

The Supreme Court's administration was recognized by the existing Supreme Pursue subject Marbury v. Madison, in which the pursue ruled that it wanted to be operative to construe the Constitution to construct determinations and that these construeations had to be enforced by the other offshootes of council.

It is immanent to peaceful n ess that the Supreme Pursue cannot flow whether a law is juridical straightway after the law is ignoringed. Courts are prepared so that they merely heedkenkenken dissecticular subjects. These subjects are ruled inveterate on their postulates and merits and merely accommodate as illustrations of the enforcement of laws. There must be litigants (i.e., idiosyncratics confused in the subject who are procureing to procure it to the excellent flattens of the pursues) to heedkenkenken a subject. The Supreme Pursue is considered "the pursue of conclusive call-upon" in that it is the main flatten at which a subject can be implyd. Most subjects heedkenkend by the Supreme Pursue succeed through the call-upon administration, which instrument that the subject falls inferior the Court's appellate administration. When a subject is call-uponed from a inferior pursue, the Supreme Pursue may flow to heedkenkenken the subject if it individualizes that a solid juridical topic is in controversy. Litigants in these subjects must employ to be heedkenkend by the Supreme Court, and the Pursue admits aggravate 7,000 such requests each year. When the Supreme Pursue flows to heedkenkenken a subject, it must evaluate the arguments in the subject. Nine proportionedices heedkenkenken the arguments made by twain sides, and frequently own topics for the lawyers in the subject.

Lady Propriety Illustration

Every Supreme Pursue determination contains two components: the signification and the estimation. The signification is a single signification minding who wins the subject. The determination is of first weight to the dissecticular idiosyncratics confused in the subject. The estimation, still, is the component of the determination that is the most profiting for the pause of us. The estimation clear-ups why the proportionedices significationd the way they did and apprehends details and rationalistic that set the pursue management. The estimation helps individualize the way inferior pursues and the Supreme Pursue procure flow congruous subjects in the forthcoming. Decisions are not regularly like-minded and can apprehend the rationalistic of the eldership (the eldership estimation), the rationalistic of those who disconcur (the dissenting estimation), and the rationalistic of those who concur after a while the determination, but not the rationalistic after it (the concurring estimation).

Legal Rationalistic and Precedent

In the estimations, the US Justices clear-up why they ruled the subject the way they did. Besides the Justices reconsideration laws to fix alignment after a while our written Constitution. There is an confluence that the authoritys procure use juridical rationalistic as a foundation for an estimation. In the United States, authoritys are not acknowledgeed to construct determinations merely owing they own an estimation about a collective upshot. In truth, authoritys frequently construct determinations that run contrary to their own beliefs. All determinations own to own a foundation in law and must own juridical rationalistic after them. A authority potentiality deem, for illustration, that it is wickedness to inculpate very high-profit rates that procure custom of the penniless and the ancient. The authority cannot assign a juridical determination that this experience wants to plug, still, original there is a law aggravate it.

When assigning an estimation, a authority procure pursue the most new warrant. This tidings refers to one of the most immanent principles of juridical rationalistic. Cases must be ruled in the pursues inveterate on how congruous subjects were ruled in the late. If the pursues own acknowledgeed idiosyncratics to own insubservience of discourse in the late, then the pursues must uppause that insubservience for all idiosyncratics and clumps. Each pursue determination, for-this-reason, must intimation foregoing subjects, and clear-up why the determination either maintains foregoing amioperative determinations or aggravateturns foregoing penniless determinations. As you potentiality conceive, contrast warrant is by naturalness a flexile and construeive administration.


In the sschoice method, there are a abnormity of makers helping to urge policies to harangue grievances by the idiosyncratics, a hallowed suitoperative of the US Constitution. To own the idiosyncratics heedkenkend, the idiosyncratics must go to the polls and signification. Collective dissecties call-upon to all significationrs by creating platforms to link after a while the significationr, and besides own their aspirant win the eldership of the significations, engaging the service. Elitist theorists deem that the significationr as the mediate maker in the lateime of politics is foolish; rather profit clumps after a while a wild sum of media end up repressling the sschoice method for their profits. However, the idiosyncratics so own the US Juridical Method as an adjudicator for their grievances. The US Supreme Pursue is the conclusive adjudicator who assigns an estimation inveterate on juridical rationalistic and warrant on a law ignoringed by the Congress, so if a idiosyncratic cannot get proportionedice through the legislative administration, then they try the pursues.


Magstadt, T. M. (2017). Understanding politics: Ideas, institutions, and upshots (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Michels, R. (1915). Political dissecties: A sociological consider of the autocratic tendencies of late democracy. (E. Paul & C. Paul, Trans). New York, NY: The Free Press. (Original effect published in 1911).